Theories and Conceptual Models of Nursing
There are various theories and conceptual models of nursing that can be used by advanced practice nurses (APNs). Advanced practice nursing is supported by discipline-specific theoretical knowledge that draws on philosophical perspectives based on an ethical approach toward humans and their environment (Yip, 2021).
A conceptual model of nursing provides a framework for reflection, observation, and interpretation of phenomena, and, specifically, it provides guidelines and guidance for aspects of clinical practice (Vieira et al., 2021). Conceptual models are widely used by APNs during practice. A common example is using the Wong-Baker FACES pain scaling scale. This scale is used to determine a childâ€™s pain by showing him multiple sad and happy faces. Also, there is a numerical one for adults from 1-10 that I personally used every day at the emergency department (Butts & Rich, 2015). Other types of measurements that aid with observation in patients are physiological measures, which include vital signs like a blood pressure reading, laboratory levels, and input and output. However, there are some measurements that can be self-reported, like a patient reporting how many times they had a bowel movement or how many times they felt palpitations in a 24-hour period. All of these conceptual models can aid APNs to make an appropriate diagnosis and to provide adequate treatment.
Environmental theories of various kinds are designed to guide action and to bring our facts in line with our values and our values with facts (Gray et al., 2018). The main problems faced in environmental theories are the lack of natural resources and population. Many believe they are caused by the overconsumption of resources while others believe itâ€™s due to how large the human population has grown (Gray et al., 2018). No matter the cause what we can all agree is that these problems can lead to many healthcare issues. While environmental theories are typically applied to ethics and to, the interaction between facts and values within environmental theories is also instructive for many healthcare decisions (Gray et al., 2018). The way in which people understand value affects their behavior hence why educating patients as APNs is a necessity that can affect our environment.
Economic theory is a type of theory that normally people would not think APNs could use. However, economics is considered both a social science and a foundational form of knowledge. Additionally, healthcare economics has been recently developed and it conveys the uncertainties in the incidence of disease and the efficacy of treatments that lead to inefficient allocation of resources. This forces non-market institutions to compensate for these inequalities, which is something that affects all healthcare professionalsâ€™ theories (Gray et al., 2018). The interest in economics is human behavior in the choices and interactions taken to overcome the problem of scarce resources with alternative uses theory (Gray et al., 2018). Â Advanced practice nurses in select fields are likely to have used clinical applications of some of the assumptions of classical economic theory in the form of social exchange theory (Gray et al., 2018).
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