CRITICISMS OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM
In Chapter 1 we discussed that even though sustainability has been an important topic in tourism studies for years, very little has changed in its practice. The issue at hand, according to Moscardo and Murphy (2014), is in the way tourism academics have conceptualized ST. Butler (1991) detected this problem early in the ST discourse by arguing that curbing tourist numbers, changing the tourist type, changing the resource for resistance and educating people involved in the industry stand as our best chances at becoming more sustainable.
Hunter (1995) argued that ST is too tourism centric and parochial and, as such, stakeholders are unable to plan and manage the industry consistent with the tenets of ST (see also Hardy & Beeton, 2001). There are issues of scale at hand, Hunter notes, especially when planning takes into consideration only specific entities like a single resort, when multi-sectoral planning integrated more comprehensively both inside and outside tourism is demanded (see Wall, 1993, in the context of Bali, Indonesia). Hunter advanced two alternative conceptual models. Model 1, total immersion, has ST development nested inside a broader notion of ST. Model 2, partial immersion, has ST development half inside the broader SD paradigm and half outside it. The implications of each are far reaching. In Model 2 the door is left open for various aspects of the tourism system, e.g. transportation, to ignore ST principles, when other industry sectors are adopting these principles.
Others argue that both industry and conservation movements are using sustainability to justify their policies and practices, creating an inherent weakness (McKercher, 1993b). Tourism as a business emphasizes economic development, whereas conservation advocates protection of resources. Can we have it both ways? Conflict over the proper use of resources will continue to be at the heart of disagreements with no end in sight. One merely has to look at just about any tourism impact dilemma to see how sociocultural and ecological factors are compromised in the face of development needs. It is impossible to imagine any type of tourism activity that is developed and operated without reducing the quantity or quality of natural resources in that location (Welford et al., 1999).
Moreover, the term sustainable tourism has been criticized as lacking integrity, not much more than a buzzword or marketing gimmick emphasizing sensibility, sensitivity and sophistication (Butcher, 1997; Wheeller, 1997). Indeed, ST has been criticized as being another empty clichÃ©, with questions surrounding its operationalization, its measurement, and consensus on its definition. Further, some believe that trying to produce definitions of sustainable tourism is dangerous because general definitions can connote the impression of simplicity in what is a complex area, while some descriptions may be irrelevant, misleading and ever-changing (Bramwell et al., 1996).
Butcher (1997: 37) makes the extraordinary statement that â€˜sustainable tourism is a concept with little to offer the touristâ€™. He takes this position based on the belief that the new moral imperative in tourism threatens to suppress hedonism as tourists become increasingly regulated in what is acceptable behaviour and what is not acceptable. So, â€˜Hedonism, once a virtue of tourism, becomes a threat. Caution and wariness are characteristics of the new tourismâ€™ (Butcher, 1997: 35). Additionally, Butcher argues that the sustainability rhetoric has become the bane of the lesser developed countries who badly need development in order to overcome debilitating political, social and economic constraints. The choice to preserve cultural and ecological artefacts over the development needs of the impoverished is deemed irresponsible from Butcherâ€™s perspective. This perspective has been embraced by other scholars who believe that ST ought to be configured according to poverty alleviation through the pro-poor tourism agenda (increasing access for the poor to tourism benefits), and through ecotourism with its focus on the reduction of environmental impacts (Neto, 2003). This may mean that different interpretations of ST may be appropriate for developed and developing countries. For instance, poor, developing countries may emphasize an economic imperative, whereas other, stronger interpretations of ST are based upon a â€˜Western environmentalismâ€™ (Munt, 1992).
Muller (1994) suggests that the objective of ST is to influence the following factors: economic health, the subjective wellbeing of locals, unspoilt nature and the protection of resources, healthy culture, and the optimum satisfaction of guest requirements. Thus, the desired situation is balanced tourism development in which no one element, whether it be environmental protection, visitor satisfaction or economic health, predominates over the others. Still other authors (Hunter, 1997) argue that the concept of balancing all goals is unrealistic, since such competing aspects are often traded off and priorities emerge which skew the decision making in favour of certain aspects â€“ as noted above by Munt (1992).
Nonetheless, the dominant perception of ST is a destination area tourism/environment system in balance, where none of the above aspects can be allowed to dominate. Although the notion of balance in ST is attractive, questions need to be addressed such as what protecting the resource base really means. As well, some studies interchangeably use the words â€˜protectionâ€™, â€˜conservationâ€™ and â€˜preservationâ€™, although each has a very different meaning. Often, no reference is made to particular resources (renewable or non-renewable natural resources), exhibiting a further lack of detail and clarity (Hunter, 1997). Hunter (1997) states that perhaps the most appropriate way to perceive ST is not as a narrowly defined concept reliant on a search for balance, but instead as an overarching, adaptive paradigm within which several different development pathways may be legitimized according to circumstances. Put simply, there may be a need to consider factors such as supply, demand, host community needs and desires, and a consideration of impacts on environmental resources. As well, location-specific factors such as environmental characteristics and existing tourism developments should be considered. Thus, Hunter (1997) surmises that ST research would benefit from a closer inspection of the broader SD literature, which demonstrates a greater flexibility in determining potential development pathways. It is also suggested that ST research could benefit from a more penetrating appreciation of the complexities inherent in humanâ€“environment interactions. This would allow for more detailed analyses of the interactions between economic sectors, the level of precaution to be adopted in environmental management (Fennell & Ebert, 2004), potential environmental management techniques, and the extent to which these should be utilized depending on the degree of efficiency sought in the utilization of resources. Table 4.1 provides a breakdown of specific concerns that have been voiced by Moscardo and Murphy (2014), following from Getz (1986) and Moscardo (2011) on the left-hand side of the box, and Liu (2003) on the right-hand side of the box. Table 4.1 Criticisms of sustainable tourism Moscardo and Murphy (2014)
Liu (2003) 1. A narrow focus on specific projects, rather than considerations of tourism as a whole.
1. Little effort has been placed into tourism demand at the destination level, with often unfounded assumptions that a sustained level of visitation will occur. 2. Limited attention given to tourism impacts.
2. Resource sustainability is often discussed only from the perspective of preservation and conservation, with little recognition of the dynamic and complex nature of resources, which evolve according to the needs of society. 3. A focus on economic factors with occasional limited acknowledgement of environmental issues.
3. Little effort has been placed into the emphasis on intergenerational equity according to the fairness of benefits and costs that ought to be distributed across stakeholder groups. 4. A failure to consider how tourism would interact with and affect other activities at a destination.
4. More of a focus should be placed on the economic benefits of communities from tourism while maintaining their cultural identities. 5. The naÃ¯ve adoption of business strategic planning as the dominant framework for tourism planning and, as a consequence.
Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?
- Plagiarism free papers
- Timely delivery
- Any deadline
- Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
- Subject-relevant academic writer
- Adherence to paper instructions
- Ability to tackle bulk assignments
- Reasonable prices
- 24/7 Customer Support
- Get superb grades consistently
Online Academic Help With Different Subjects
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
What discipline/subjects do you deal in?
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
What if I don’t like the paper?
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
- When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
- We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.
In the event that you don’t like your paper:
- The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
- We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
- Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.
Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
What if the paper is plagiarized?
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
When will I get my paper?
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
Will anyone find out that I used your services?
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
How our Assignment Help Service Works
1. Place an order
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
2. Pay for the order
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
3. Track the progress
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
4. Download the paper
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!