The basic difference between a prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell is the presence of a nucleus. In prokaryotic cell, the nucleus is not at all present but in eukaryotic cell, there is a well-defined nucleus. In the eukaryotic cell, there is DNA inside the nucleus, but in the case of a prokaryotic cell, DNA does not require a nucleus. Basic parts of the prokaryotic cell are the cell membrane, cytoplasm, flagella, nucleoid, and plasmid. Each of these structures carries out specific functions inside the body. The basic structures of a eukaryotic cell consist of a cell membrane, mitochondria, cytoplasm, well-defined nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and the lysosomes. Examples of some of the prokaryotes are bacteria, like, Streptomyces soil bacteria and archaea. Examples of eukaryotes are plants, fungi, animals, insects, amoeba, and humans.
The cell is named a eukaryotic cell due to the presence of a nucleus and many organelles. During the cell growth, the cell divides and during the division, many different types of activities are carried out. There are three types of activities that take place inside the eukaryotic cell. The first one includes the quiescence phase. The second phase is the interphase and the last phase is the mitosis. All these phases take place when the cell divides. The quiescence phase is mostly the resting phase of the cell. Resting means the cell does not carry out any activity of division. Some of the examples of cells that remain in this phase include the cells of the liver, stomach, and kidney. In the stage of interphase, the cell divides and grows. The cell attains nutrients during the interphase. In the first stage of interphase, the cell grows. In the synthesis phase, the cell divides in which the DNA replicates. The chromosomes present in the DNA divide to form two sister chromatids. In the third phase of the interphase, the cell again grows and hence prepares itself for the mitotic division. In the stage of mitosis, the cell divides into two daughter cells. Both the daughter cells have their own individual chromosomes. The cell gradually divides and forms separate nuclei and organelles.
Organelles of animal cell
Organelles are very small structures in the cell. These structures help in carrying out different activities inside and outside the cell. Animal tissue is made up of eukaryotic cells. The main constituents of a eukaryotic cell are the nucleus and the organelles. The organelles in an animal cell consist of a large nucleus, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, mitochondria, cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, and lastly the cell membrane. Each of the organelles has special structures and help in carrying out the overall activity of the cell.
The nucleus carries in them information about genetic materials. This information is provided by the DNA that is also called the deoxyribonucleic acid. DNA is a double helical structure which helps in the production of different kinds of proteins and in the control of different body activities. The nucleus helps in carrying out the overall cell activity. The nucleus is mainly supported by the nuclear membrane, therefore with the help of the nuclear membrane, the nucleus is separated from the other parts of the material. The function of the nucleus is to divide the cell and also helps in the process of mitosis. The second organelle is the endoplasmic reticulum. The proteins that are generated with the help of the DNA that is present in the nucleus need a transport material to help in the transportation of the proteins. The endoplasmic reticulum mainly consists of two types one is the rough endoplasmic reticulum and the other is the smooth reticulum. Both help in removing any type of toxic materials present inside the cell.
The Golgi apparatus collects proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum. The Golgi apparatus acts as a helper to transport the proteins to different parts of the cell. Since all the organelles have a membrane, the Golgi apparatus too has a membrane that surrounds it and helps in the separation with the other materials.
The fourth are the lysosomes. The lysosomes are a class of vesicles. The vesicles help in the initiation of metabolism in the cell and carry out the transportation of large molecules.
The mitochondria is the fourth and the most important organelle as it provides energy to the entire cell. The respiration process takes place in the mitochondria itself. The cytoplasm forms another part of the organelle. The cytoplasm is a fluid-like structure and is present in all the cells of the body. The cytosol is referred to be the gel-like fluid substance. The shape of each of the organelles is provided by the cytoskeleton. It also provides the overall stability of the cell. The last organelle is the cell membrane. The main activity of the cell membrane is to provide strength and help in the separation of other organelles.
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