Different Types of Memory Systems Paper

Memory Systems:
The information processing approach stated that humans encode, store, and similarly retrieve data to a computer. Through this view, Atkinson and Shiffrin formulated a ‘modal model of memory.’ It describes three stages through which memory processes: – Sensory, short-term memory, and long-term memory.

Sensory memory: – Information first gets registered in sensory memory. The information about the stimuli is encoded like a replica by all senses through the sensory register. The capacity of sensory memory is unlimited but lasts just for a few seconds. Further, there are two types of sensory memory: –

Iconic memories are the visual memories that last just for half a second, such as experiencing visual after images.

Echoic memories are the auditory stimulation that records information.

Short-term memory (STM): Senses perceive enormous data from the environment. But not all get registered to STM. Organisms employ selective attention to collect data relevant to them. The information in STM lasts less than 30 seconds. People use Maintenance rehearsal to store information in STM. It means repeatedly verbalizing information for better storage and recall. Chunking can help to enhance STM capacity that is- 7+ -2, (given by George Miller). For instance, to memorize a mobile number- 9212386095 through a chunking process, a person would break information into small units or chunks such as 921/ 2386/ 095. Atkinson and Shiffrin stated that information is recorded acoustically in STM.

According to Baddeley (1986), STM is working memory. Working memory has three interconnected processes: – central executive (it coordinates the functioning of the other two memory systems), phonological memory (auditory), and visual sketchpad (vision /spatial memory). For instance, while watching a movie, information about images gets recorded through visual memory, and dialogues through auditory memory. The central executive will organize the various information coming from the phonological loop and visual sketchpad.

Long term memory (LTM): The information lasting capacity and duration of STM enters long- term memory. It states that once the data encoded in LTM, it is never lost. Consequently, LTM is known as a permanent storehouse. The capacity of LTM is large, and the information remains for a lifetime. Atkinson and Shiffrin explain that data lasts longer in the LTM because it is encoded systematically. Elaborative rehearsal helps to encode the information in LTM. It means an organism comprehends the meaning of the perceived data or understands it through pre-existing knowledge. For instance, understanding prosocial behavior becomes easy if a person has pre-knowledge about kindness, helpfulness, or generosity.

Long term Memory: – Classification
Procedural memory ( non-declarative memory): – It refers to the memory that involves the procedure of performing various chores. For instance, making tea, coffee, or driving a car.

Declarative memory: – The memory includes various significant dates, facts, and names. For instance, information about one’s name or birthdate or car has four wheels.

Episodic memory: – Episodic memory ( given by Tulving) includes biographical details of life. Take, for instance, the first day at high school.

Semantic memory: – This memory system was given by Tulving. It includes logic, ideas, reasoning, and other significant dimensions of one’s general awareness. For example, to recall that the rise of the sun takes place in the east.

Flashbulb memory: – Flashbulb memories are stiffened images that a person recalls about significant events, people, and dates. It means that when people retrieve information about these events, it appears to them like a photograph taken from a camera. These events usually are exciting, heartfelt, and specific.

Autobiographical memory: – It refers to intimate memories that are not divided equally throughout individuals’ life periods because some periods originate more memories than others. For example, the frequency of memory creation enhances in adulthood. What memories are retrieved depends on the emotionality, precision, and originality of it.

Implicit memory: It remains farther from consciousness and is automatically processed. For instance, the chief was busy on the phone call but still chopped the vegetables perfectly. Another example includes driving back home while talking to a colleague on the phone.

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