Female Reproductive System Functions

Functions of Ovaries

The ovaries serve three purposes. It first safeguards and shelters the eggs of the female till they are ready to be used. Second, ovaries generate estrogen, progesterone, relaxin, inhibin and minor female reproductive hormones. Estrone, estradiol, and estriol are the three distinct forms of estrogen. They are produced by the body to aid in developing adult female traits like breasts and bigger hips and the reproduction cycle. Progesterone plays an essential role in reproduction as well. Relaxin allows the pelvic ligaments to stretch during labour by loosening them. Finally, Inhibin inhibits the pituitary gland’s ability to produce hormones.

Third, in each menstrual cycle, the ovaries release one egg or more eggs at times. Ovulation is the name for this process. There are follicles inside each ovary, and each follicle contains a latent egg. A female’s ovaries contain between 150,000 and 500,000 follicles when she is born. When a woman reaches sexual maturity, she will have roughly 34,000 follicles. The follicle migrates to the ovarian wall when a specific egg is stimulated to maturity by hormones secreted by the pituitary gland. The egg and the follicle develop and mature here. They are ready for ovulation once they have reached maturity. Graafian follicles, or mature follicles, can reach a length of 1.2 inches.

Functions of Uterus
The uterus is involved in the reproductive cycle, fertility, and childbearing in several ways. For instance, the endometrial lining of the uterus undergoes vascularization during a normal menstrual cycle, in which microscopic blood vessels multiply, making the lining larger and richer in blood if the egg produced during that cycle is fertilized. Conversely, the menstrual cycle results in the shedding of inner membranes if no fertilization takes place.

If an egg is fertilized, it burrows into the endometrium, where the decidua basalis, the maternal component of the placenta, develops. The uterus expands, and the muscle walls thin as the pregnancy continues, similar to a balloon inflated to fit the growing fetus and the protecting amniotic fluid produced first by the woman and later by the baby’s urine and lung secretions.

The muscular membrane of the uterus starts to contract periodically during pregnancy to prepare for birthing. Braxton-Hicks’s contractions or practice contractions resemble period symptoms and some women are not even aware of them. However, they are not the increasingly strong and regular contractions that squeeze the baby out of the uterus and into the vaginal canal. Instead, the uterus carries on to contract after a baby is born to evacuate the placenta. In the ensuing weeks, contraction changes the uterus to its original dimensions and ceases the bleeding during parturition.

Functions of Fallopian Tube
The principal role of the fallopian tube is to bear eggs from the ovary to the uterus. The fimbriae gather up the eggs and sweep them towards the uterus. The beating of the cilia and peristalsis, or the tube muscles’ rhythmic contractions, is responsible for this movement. Fertilization normally happens in the fallopian tubes. The sperm leave the uterus and proceed through the tubes, where they might come in contact and fertilize an egg. After that, the fertilized egg begins its transfer to the uterus. A uterine pregnancy occurs when a fertilized egg implants in the uterus and continues to develop.

For someone to become pregnant without medical help, successful egg transfer through the fallopian tubes is required. This is why tubal sterilization, which prevents the tubes from functioning, is an effective method of long-term contraception. Getting the tubes of a female tied is another term for this.

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