The bond between a mother and her child can influences both physical as well as emotional factors. The fetus develops a strong attachment to the mother as she is aware of the mother’s heartbeat and voice before birth itself. The baby responds to the touches even when they are within the mother’s womb. By the third trimester, a strong maternal bond is established between the mother and the fetus. Maternal bonding directly affects the health of the child and the mother. In cases where the maternal-newborn attachment is less, it can result in a decline in the basic needs of the child. The hormonal changes during pregnancy and after childbirth has an important role in developing a strong relationship between the child and the mother as hormones like oxytocin predispose women to more emotional bonding with a child. The maternal bond is known to have a vital role in the personality development of the child. During pregnancy, the women are to remain calm and relaxed as the mother’s emotions directly affect the child. It is reported that when a pregnant woman is frightened the heartbeat of the baby doubles. The maternal bond with the fetus creates a sense of responsibility for self and her child. Breastfeeding is a natural mechanism that helps to increase the interaction between the child and mother thus establishing a strong bond that helps the child in multiple aspects. Post-Partum depression can be very tough on the mother and thus it is important for mothers to be prepared for this before they give birth. The doctors use multiple interventions to increase the bond between the fetus and the mother. They engage the mothers in having time to feel the kicks of the baby and talk to the fetus which increases the bond between them.
Immunological relation between infant and mother:
Apart from the emotional bonding, there exists a strong immunological bond between the fetus and the mother. It is a bidirectional communication determined by the fetal antigen and the mother’s immune system. The recognition of the fetal antigen by the immune system of the mother is essential for the maintenance of pregnancy and inadequate identification of this might result in a failed pregnancy once a fetal antigen is detected by the immune system of the mother it reacts by setting a wide range of protective mechanism. Humoral immunity is the one that will be active during the period of pregnancy. Cytokines that are derived from maternal body act on the placental development whereas the antigen that is expressed on the placenta analyzes the maternal cytokine pattern. Progesterone-mediated immunomodulation develops due to stimulation by fetal-derived antigens and they operate in favor of pregnancy.
Anatomical and physiological relationship between fetus and mother:
The motherâ€™s blood goes to the placenta where it makes direct contact with the thromboplastin cells that are present in the villi here. Thus, the placenta and the umbilical cord as well are the parts of the body that connect a mother to her child. The placenta is made of cells from both the mother and fetus. These structures are important in meeting the nutritional, gaseous requirements of the fetus and maintaining pregnancy. It is said that during pregnancy cells may travel through the placenta between the mother and fetus and this is known to a broad range of impacts beneficial for both the fetus and the mother. The migrating cells may even help in tissue repair and cancer prevention. Scientists have even discovered the presence of fetal cells in a mother’s brain. The placental cells entering into the bloodstream provide the fetus with access to oxygen and nutrients.
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