Recent studies in the most intensively studied species such as mice, nematodes and fruit flies have revealed that sex determination of differentiation systems have evolved over time and are not wholly conserved evolutionarily. Not only do environmental or chromosomal factors determine sexual differentiation but also the ratio of genes on X chromosome and autosomes transcription and protein production and also splicing of mRNA regulate the sexual differentiation. Sex reversal is when the development of the sexual phenotype is regulated during the embryonic development. Hermaphrodites are the best examples of flexibility of sexual differentiation system and sequential hermaphrodites have the capability of having one sex and then that sex changes. Simultaneous Hermaphrodite are the organisms which have the capability of physiological reproducing as a male or female at the same time.
Socially determined: Clownfish which is a sequential hermaphrodite. Due to this, changes in the environment can lead to sexual differentiation of sex reversal. In clown fishes, females are larger in size than males. They have social groups with one large female and smaller meals and other juveniles. In case the female is removed, then the largest male changes its sex and turns into a female.
Alternative Morphs: It is not always that a species has to produce one female and one recognizable male type. Sexual selection can be found in the development of different types of meals which follow alternative reproductive strategies such as territorial males in dung beetles. In some species, only one of them have alternative morphs.
Sexual Differentiation in Animals
The genes that are responsible for differentiation can be different even in the closely related species. For instance, in zebrafish, the male differentiation is caused by amh gene but in Southern catfish, it is caused by foxl2. The mode of reproduction is different in fishes. Gonochorism is successful reproduction from a distance and there are also self-fertilizing hermaphrodites. This makes a sexual differentiation complex. ZW sex determination is in birds and the XO determination system is in insects. Multiple transactions have taken place between genetic and environmental sex determination system in reptiles over the years and studies have shown that temperature can override the sex determination in reptiles by using chromosomes.
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