Liverworts are the oldest plant lineages on Earth. Their exact position in the life tree remains unclear. The diversity in DNA suggests that the Paleozoic era is the main origin of liverworts. Additionally, the diversification of most of the extant genera has already started in a Cretaceous-era or Cenozoic era.
The general pattern of liverwort diversification estimates the fluctuation considerably that deviate the node calibrations based on the pieces of evidence given by the fossils. This determines the utility of fossils in the analysis of molecular dating. The Paleozoic fossils and Mesozoic fossils of liverworts are meager in which most of them are not properly preserved. But in the late Mesozoic era and final Cenozoic era have yielded many liverwort fossils.
The resin of the gymnosperm or angiosperm tree serves as the best preservative medium that allows detailed notes on the diversity of the liverworts. About 200 deposits are well known that are found in the Baltic region. This area is dated as of the Eocene era.
The fossils of hornworts were found in the Cretaceous era and the lower Devonian era was found in the clade of the phylogenic tree. This group contains the sporangium with columella unattached in the roof area. But the same form of the columella is not found in certain groups such as Andreaeopsida and Sphagnopsidaand that explains that all the land plants contain stomata.
Initially, the hornworts are considered as a division of Bryophyta whose former division is paraphyletic, and hence the hornworts that contain their division called Anthocerotophyta. Among the land plants, the hornworts have one largest and earliest diverging group of lineages and they are the early ancestors. The clade analysis suggests that the group has been oriented before the Devonian era around the same time as liverworts and mosses. About 200 species were known but new species are being identified.
Many structural features that help in identifying the hornworts exist such as the presence of pyrenoids, structure of chloroplast and their quantity per cell, quantitative measurement of androecia, and antheridia and jacket cell arrangement in antheridia.
In the early Devonian period, the Trimerophytes makes the origin of cycads, ferns and conifers, and other flowering plants. The monopodial branching pattern of these simple plants makes their potential for greater evolutionary change and diversity.
The rise of early fern-like plants was not clearly understood. It is very difficult to inference the small scrappings of plants that have displayed vegetative and reproductive characteristics. Some scientist has viewed that the ferns have features that suggest the features of Trimerophytes. This is because the upper and lower Carboniferous ferns have simple stem structures with leaves having reduced laminated pinnules having terminal sporangia.
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