Human Genome Project Discussion Paper

The prime objective of the HGP is to sequence the entire nucleotide base pairs (around 3.3 billion) of the human deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and the genes in it. Still, HGP is the only synergetic biological work in the world. The United States (US) government launched the idea of HGP in 1948, and the formal launch occurred in 1990. The researchers completed the HGP in 2003. They mapped the genome of only small individuals and assembled those sequenced genes to complete the sequence for each chromosome. Therefore, it does not represent any single individual.

The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Institute of Health (NIH) are the funding agencies of HGP. The advancements in biostatistics are one of the goals of HGP. Researchers stored all the genetic information in a computer-based program. HGP revealed that the large region of the genome contains repetitive sequences without specific coding purposes.

Tools of HGP
Genetic mapping, physical mapping, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence mapping are the three advanced tools of HGP. It enables the researchers to inspect large amounts of genes efficiently. Some of the characteristic features of the tools of HGP include the following:

Genetic mapping: It is the first process of the HGP. The genetic map developed in HGP contains short and distinguishing pieces of DNA. Genetic mapping helps the investigators to find the approximate location or position of genes in the chromosomes. Investigators collect blood or tissue samples from the families exhibiting diseased traits. They extract the DNA from the collected samples and find the recurring nucleotide sets. If the family members with the same disease share the identified nucleotide sets. Later the researchers identify the marker for the diseased-linked gene. It is helpful to recognize that particular disease.

Physical mapping: Genome scientists prepare physical maps with sets of overlapping DNA fragments in a specific region or entire region of the chromosome. The prime advantage of physical mapping in HGP is that scientists can isolate and do frozen storage for future research works. The markers in both the linkage and physical maps retain the connectivity of the genes.

DNA sequence map: After constructing the linkage and physical map, the researchers conduct gene sequencing unit by unit. The DNA sequence maps help the researchers to identify and characterize the DNA regions. Investigators used polymerase chain reaction (PCR), recombinant DNA technology, Maxam-Gilbert sequencing, and Sanger sequencing to construct DNA sequence maps.

The genetic, physical, and sequence maps help the genetic experts to understand the biological basis and the influence of environmental factors in diseases like cardiovascular diseases and several genetic disorders. The discovery of five different chromosomal regions that cause type 1 diabetes is a better instance to address the advantages of HGP. HGP plays a crucial role in several fields like molecular medicines, diagnostics, and therapeutics. Some of the applications of HGP in the different industries including;

Molecular medicines: The researchers of HGP identified specific loci of the dreadful disease-linked genes of diseases like Hemophilia A, Cystic Fibrosis, and Huntington’s disease. It helps in the early diagnosis of the disease that comes in the future and helps to provide advanced treatments for the patients.

Waste control and environmental cleanup: Through the Human Genome Project, the Department of Energy’s Office of Science launched the Microbial Genome Initiative in 1994. The goal of the project was to sequence the microbes’ genome to identify their various helpful characteristics. The investigators sequenced the genome of six microbes living in extreme temperature and pressure. The discovery of the unique protein structure and the enzymes of those microbes helped the researchers in waste control and environmental cleanup.

Energy resources: The HGP aims to improve the use of fossil-based resources. Biotechnology can help develop new energy sources and improve the bioconversion of raw materials into refined products. Also, the possibility of developing bio-based energy sources such as methane is helpful. The discovery of the genome sequence of Methanococcus jannaschii helps genomic researchers to study methanogenesis in detail. It helps to lower the cost of producing fuel-grade methane.

Risk assessment: Understanding the human genome will help us identify individuals at risk of being exposed to toxic agents. This knowledge will also help the US Department of Energy’s long-term goal to understand the effects of radiation and other energy agents on humans. Understanding the human genome will help scientists identify the genetic differences that cause people to be more vulnerable to toxic substances. This research has provided numerous positive spin-offs, such as a better understanding of biology, an increa

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