Few changes in soil conditions that change root-soil interactions are as follows:
â€¢ Waterlogging: Poor drainage and waterlogging is the condition in which excess water is present in soil and the soil cannot respire. It is a major issue that affects soil microbiota. The oxygen present in the soil will be completely utilized by the microbes and due to the pores filled with water; microbes do not get enough oxygen for their metabolic activities. Due to this, the root metabolism alters and toxins start getting produced by the soil. These conditions restrict root extension and the root system only focuses on finding ways to collect oxygen and provide it to the rhizosphere for proper functioning.
â€¢ Drought: The condition of water scarcity affects the root-soil interaction very strongly. Roots are the only part of a plant that can absorb the water required for plant survival and growth. Due to drought conditions, enough water may not be available in the soil; therefore, the roots get modified and turn into aerial roots that absorb moisture content from the atmosphere and provides it to plants. The roots also grow deep inside and absorb water from deep regions of soil by interacting with subsoil areas within the soil.
â€¢ Nutrient deficiency: In nutrient-deficient soils, the root growth is reduced, but the root/shoot ratio increases exponentially. The soil does not become nutrient deficient completely, but the nutrient distribution goes non-uniform. Therefore, the localized stimulation of root growth takes place. The extension area of the root is very sensitive to nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium levels. The localized stimulation of roots helps the plants to carry on their normal activities, and soil gives support to the roots by providing proper nutrition.
â€¢ Uptake of water: Soil pores size with diameters 0.2-60Âµm can hold water properly in different types of soils. The root growth will always be in these pores and a very delicate setup is built between these systems where root hairs and soil interact and water films are held between them. More water holding capacity is found in soil particles if the interaction of soil particles is higher with root hairs.
Importance of root hairs in soil interactions with the root system:
Root hairs are the extensions of the root that are mainly involved in the interaction with the soil. They are 0.005-0.025mm in diameter, but they are involved in the modification of root surface geometry. Root hairs live only for a few days and after they die. New root hairs develop depending on external conditions. A low concentration of nitrate and phosphate develops long root hairs. Root hairs help the soil to maintain the concentration of different macro and micronutrients. For example, a three-fold increase in root hair concentration makes a five-fold increase in the potassium inflow from soil to plants. Thus the nutrients required by the plants and their absorption along with their availability in the soil are maintained by the root hairs.
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