Leisure suit larry LGbtQ Representation Adrienne Shaw

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leisure suit larry
LGbtQ Representation
Adrienne Shaw
Abstract: Much of popular and critical attention to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) representation in video games has focused on either samesex romance options or explicitly LGBTQ major game characters, but little has been
written about more minor but equally important forms of representation. In this
chapter, Adrienne Shaw analyzes a game series that is at its core about heterosexual
masculinity, Leisure Suit Larry, to explore how LGBTQ representation permeates
texts even when they are “not about that.”
Compared to other media, little academic attention has been paid to the history of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) content in digital
games. To correct for this, my collaborators and I have been building a digital
archive documenting all known LGBTQ content in digital games created since
the 1980s.1
In addition to allowing us to look at LGBTQ representation in games
over time, the archive demonstrates the myriad ways LGBTQ people and issues
are integrated into this medium. In this chapter, I use the game series Leisure
Suit Larry (Sierra On-Line/Vivendi, 1987–2009) as an example for analyzing LGBTQ representation in digital games. Although the series is about a heterosexual
man attempting to perform a version of white hegemonic masculinity, the game
is rife with LGBTQ characters, content, and gameplay sequences. Although many
of these examples are used in a homophobic or transphobic manner, the game offers a useful example for thinking about how games can include LGBTQ content
holistically and not simply via same-sex romance options.
Leisure Suit Larry (LSL) is a comedic, adult video game series first released in
1987 and created by Al Lowe for Sierra On-Line. The company invested little in
the original game. It was wholly written and programmed by Lowe, and the art
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Leisure Suit Larry 111
was done by a single artist, Mark Crowe. Lowe was also asked to forego any upfront payment in exchange for a generous cut of the royalties on each game sold.2
Although some distributors refused to sell or advertise it, blogger Jimmy Maher
writes that “by the summer of 1988, the game’s one-year anniversary, Leisure Suit
Larry in the Land of the Lounge Lizards had become the biggest game Sierra had
ever released that wasn’t a King’s Quest.”3
It has enjoyed continued cult popularity
ever since.
Prior to a 2004 reboot of the franchise, LSL was a point-and-click adventure
game series where players guided Larry Laffer, a middle-aged virgin (in the first
game), through a series of interactions with women he was trying to seduce.
The rebooted series from publisher Vivendi, created without Lowe and criticized
by him, features Larry’s nephew Larry Lovage.4
The newer games have threedimensional (3D) graphics and more movement challenges than logic puzzles.
LSL: Magna Cum Laude (High Voltage Software, 2004), for example, requires
players to navigate a smiling sperm around obstacles in a scrolling bar across the
bottom of the screen. Successful navigation makes Larry more or less successful
in his endeavors to seduce women. Not counting remakes and spin-off games,
there are eight games in the main LSL series.
LSL is impressive for many “firsts” in Sierra’s game development process, including beta-testing and an ability to respond to an impressive array of player
But LSL was also part of a long trend of sex-focused games. According to
Maher, following Sierra’s 1981 Softporn Adventure there was a veritable explosion
of sex-themed games.6
Conservative backlash, computer companies’ hesitancy
to have their products associated with adult-themed software, and software distributors’ refusal to sell such software later made companies hesitant to invest
in pornographic games. Following the mid-1980s game industry bust, however,
publishers turned to sex games again to appeal to a largely young male computer
enthusiast market. Leather Goddesses of Phobos from Infocom in 1986 was the
first of the new wave of sex games and helped set the stage for LSL in 1987. Following its success, game developer Ken Williams at Sierra tasked Al Lowe with
updating Softporn Adventure and making it funny.7
There is little academic research on LSL, although it is used as a passing reference in many pieces about sex and sexuality in games, and none address its
LGBTQ content.8
LGBTQ characters’ gender and sexuality in the series are often
conveyed via stereotypical signifiers (e.g., men acting effeminately or women acting masculine). This should not be read as bad in and of itself because as film
scholar Richard Dyer discusses, sexuality is difficult to represent outside of those
performative codes.9
What are often critiqued as negative stereotypes are performances of identity that are a part of some LGBTQ peoples’ lives (i.e., there
are gay men who perform effeminately; there are women who identify as butch).
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112 Adrienne Shaw
Dismissing them as unrealistic or bad dismisses people who are often marginalized within LGBTQ communities. Dyer argues that when we critique representations of homosexuality, rather than focus on questions of accuracy, we should
focus on the purpose of using those stereotypes in the text. Are stereotypes used
to demean and make other, or are they used as performative clues to signal a
character’s sexuality? How does LSL use LGBTQ characters?
Across six of the eight total LSL games, there are nine main non-player characters (NPCs) and several background LGBTQ characters. In LSL 3 (1989), for example, Larry’s wife Kalalau has left him for Bobbi, “an Amazonian, Harley-riding,
former-cannibal, lesbian, slot-machine repairwoman.” The game ends with Larry
and a woman named Patti being captured by a tribe of lesbian cannibals. LSL 6
(1993) has Gary, the gay towel-stand attendant; Shablee, “a dark-skinned makeup artist” who Larry discovers later is a transgender woman (see figure 13.1); and
Cavaricchi, an aerobics instructor that on some sites fans have described as either
bisexual or lesbian.10
In the reboot of the series Leisure Suit Larry: Magna Cum Laude (High Voltage
Software, 2004), Larry Lovage seduces a fellow college student named Ione, who
is interested in feminist poetry. Later in the game, she has come out as a lesbian
and is now dating her bisexual roommate, Luba. During one sequence of the game
Larry runs into Ione at the gay bar Spartacus. Finally, Leisure Suit Larry: Box
Office Bust (Team17, 2009) includes a reportedly bisexual pornographic movie
Figure 13.1
Shablee in Leisure Suit
Larry 6 (1993).
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Leisure Suit Larry 113
star, Damone LaCoque. In most of these cases, these characters are part of the
overarching humor for why Larry fails so dramatically in his search for sex and
love. He either goes after women who are uninterested in him or is pursued by
people he is uninterested in.
It is interesting that even as the games’ representations of gender and sexuality are problematic, they do show a wide variety of types of LGBTQ people.
Each character draws on a different trope of LGBTQ representation, and the early
games even have queer people of color. Bobbi is a classic “dykes on bikes” type of
lesbian character and, although she does not appear in the game, is described as a
native of the same fictional approximation of a Pacific Island Larry’s wife Kalalau
is from. Although the couple might mimic a tradition of showing queer women
in butch–femme relationships, the representation of two Pacific Islander women
together is rare in any medium. Shablee is used as the butt of a transphobic joke,
but she is, as far as we know, the first transgender woman of color to appear in a
game. She falls into the trope of an overly flirtatious and sexualized transwoman
of color, one who uses her sex appeal to influence Larry to get things for her. Yet,
until the final moment of their date, she is represented as a desirable woman who
knows what she wants. The post-2004 reboot games are actually more problematic in many ways, and all of the LGBTQ characters appear to be white, including
all the patrons of Spartacus. Marking Damone as bisexual involves a problematic
conflating of sex work with sexual identity. Ione is clearly meant as a parody of
the “typical college feminist” who inevitably “becomes” a lesbian and cuts off all
her hair, while Luba is represented as an open-to-anyone (when drunk) bisexual.
Although the entire series is about sexual humor, nonheterosexual and noncisgender characters occupy a particularly marginalized space in that humor. The
jokes being told or shown, imply a player who has a similar identity to Larry
(i.e., a heterosexual, cisgendered male). Certainly, actual fans of the game run the
gamut of sexual and gender identities, but LGBTQ characters in this game are
used in a marginalizing fashion. Returning to Dyer, the stereotypes deployed in
their representation are meant to reinforce their marginalization.11 Moreover, in
the earlier games these characters’ sexual identities are usually something to be
discovered rather than an outward marker of their difference to be made fun of
by Larry. This allows for a bit more opportunity of LGBTQ players themselves to
be in on, and not just part of, the joke.
LGBTQ content also includes passing references found in the background or
ambiance of the games. For example, in the first LSL game (1987) there are comedians the player can watch perform. Several of the jokes told are homophobic or are at least derogatory against LGBTQ people and women generally. In
Leisure Suit Larry 5: Passionate Patti Does a Little Undercover Work (Sierra OnLine, 1991) there is an advertisement in the New York airport that reads “Gay?
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114 Adrienne Shaw
Lesbian? Divorced? Single? Widowed? Depressed? Sorry, but the Blecchnaven
Center offers weekly seminars for happy straight couples only.” It is a random
passing reference, which is seemingly unnecessary and inconsequential, but that
makes its inclusion all the more purposeful. Every choice made in game design
is intentional, and so we must ask, “What was the purpose of including such an
unnecessary slight to homosexuals via a background ad?” Clearly it was meant for
humor, as were the passing references to lesbian cannibals in LSL 3, but the humor
was clearly at the expense of, not for, LGBTQ people. Interestingly, however, when
the original game was released and distributors were refusing to openly display it
and, in some cases, carry the game, Maher reports that “Ken Williams himself got
nervous enough that he ordered all of the jokes about ‘gay life’ to be removed from
future versions.”12 What drove this decision is unclear, however. Perhaps it came
from a concern that references to homosexuality were crossing a line in a game
that was already offending mainstream sensibilities. Alternatively, perhaps in the
late 1980s and the rise of queer activism following the AIDS crisis, the company
didn’t want to be known as the software firm that traded in homophobic jokes.
Turning to the ludic (or play) and narrative aspects of the game, this marginalization of LGBTQ content is reinforced. The goal of the game is helping Larry
successfully perform his role as a heterosexual, white, cisgendered male by having
sex with various women.13 In a game where heterosexual masculinity is the goal,
however, one logical way to impede that goal and help make sexuality and gender funny is through LGBTQ characters and themes. At the end of LSL 2 (1988),
for example, Larry marries Kalalau. To continue the series, at least without dramatically rethinking what the goal of each game would be, Larry had to become
single again. Certainly his wife could have left him for another man, but given
how regularly homosexuality is used for humor in the series, a lesbian relationship provided a narrative twist to transition into a third game.
The ludic–narrative intersections in later games are more negatively framed. In
LSL 6 for example, Gary flirts with Larry throughout the game, but if Larry flirts
back the game ends with an image of Larry and Gary holding hands and walking
off into the sunset and the following text: “What an ignominious end to a sterling career as the ultimate swinging single!” In a game where the player is tasked
with helping Larry get the ladies, his finding love with another man is apparently
shameful. The mild homophobia of this “gay game over,” however, is nothing
compared to the explicit transphobia of Larry’s reaction to Shablee. Larry tries to
seduce her by finding a dress she’s been searching for. In thanks she invites him
to the beach for a midnight swim. Once they start to have sex Larry discovers she
has a penis and begins to retch and spit on his hands and knees near the ocean.
The screen goes dark, but the audio implies Shablee rapes Larry. The next scene
shows Larry in a bathroom gargling furiously with mouthwash. He then proceeds
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Leisure Suit Larry 115
to go back to the beach, however, and happily picks up the champagne Shablee
left on the beach, proclaiming with a smile: “I earned this!” indicating the sex
was not as traumatic as one might expect. The transphobic narrative is oppressive
enough, but this scene also subtly reinforces the assumption that men (at least
“real men”) cannot be raped. Rape is punchline because there is no trauma to
deal with after the fact.
In LSL: Magna Cum Laude, there are a great many more actions Larry can
engage in tied to LGBTQ themes. Intending to foreshadow her sexual identity
reveal later in the game, when Ione and Larry finally have sex she asks him to
use a strap-on dildo instead of his penis. Later in the game, after meeting them
in Spartacus, a gay bar, Larry eventually proclaims that he is gay and walks Ione
and Luba back to their room to watch them have sex. This interaction results in
the player getting a double-ended purple dildo as a trophy. In Spartacus there are
also several different mini-games for Larry to play. In one a man named Julius
wants the player to take pictures of the scantily clad, muscular Helmut (more
points for crotch shots), although Larry can also sell these pictures to other bar
patrons. He can also, after telling Ione he is gay, try to impress the gay men at the
club by dancing with them via a rhythm mini-game.
Interestingly, although graphically the games became richer as time progressed, the relative agency of the player in exploring actions and reactions was
reduced. In the early games much of pleasure is derived from typing in various
words and seeing how the game responds (including seeing which nonnormative
responses the designer accounted for). In LSL 3, Larry accidentally ends up in a
woman’s burlesque costume after having sex with her between acts. The player
can go through a variety of inputs before realizing that “dance” is the only one
that allows Larry to successfully move on (i.e., embracing gender nonconformity
is the answer to the puzzle). In later games, however, players are asked to navigate
kinesthetic challenges rather than solve riddles. The playful exploration of a variety of sexual or gender expressions in the earlier games is reduced to generally
one-liners or sight gags in the later games.
These games span three decades, and although some specific aspects of the
types of LGBTQ representation changed, the core messages that male homosexuality is undesirable, female homosexuality is only important to the extent that it
is titillating to men, gender nonconformity is a mark of deviance, and transgender people are a joke are consistent. This challenges easy assumptions about the
inclusion of marginalized groups in media being a story of linear and evolutionary progress. The tongue-and-cheek edge of the series’ humor certainly makes as
much fun of Larry as it does the various NPCs I have described, but in the end
the player is meant to be on Larry’s side. Heterosexual masculinity is joked about
in the games, but it is not The Joke.
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116 Adrienne Shaw
The developers’ politics are clearly written into these games. In one interview
Lowe claims the games were feminist because the women always get the upper
hand and were smarter than Larry.14 This demonstrates a profound misunderstanding of feminist politics. As Maher describes, the game “is at heart an exercise in bullying, looking down on safe targets from a position of privilege and
letting fly.”15 Even Lowe’s claims for why the game is appealing support Maher’s
critique. Lowe asserts, “The guys like him because even they aren’t as dorky as
Larry. It’s someone they can feel superior to, no matter how bad off they are. And
I think the reason women like the game . . . because they’ve all dated a jerk like
that. And I think the games were very feminist, pro-female.”16 The end of LSL 2
belies Lowe’s claim that the game is feminist, however. The final text screens of the
game read, “As we leave our hero. . . . we ask ourselves the burning question. . . .
Is women’s lib really dead? Is there still a feminist movement? . . . or will Al Lowe
have to write yet another of these Silly Sin-phonies?”
According to Lowe, the “Boss” against which LSL is fighting, on a meta-level,
is feminism. Every joke about folks whose very existence challenges normative
heterosexual white masculinity are always more than jokes; they are attacks. Although the series attempts to use humor to undercut its own oppressive messages, it can never really escape the politics of its design. The takeaway, however,
need not simply be “Leisure Suit Larry” is oppressive. Throughout the series LGBTQ content is actually integral to the narrative. Looking past its sophomoric
humor, designers operating under a different framework and politics could gain
some useful insights from LSL for making a lighthearted game that represents a
diversity of LGBTQ people. The act of tracing LGBTQ representation in games,
in any medium, is not to simply document what has been. Rather, it is a starting
point in figuring out why things are the way they are and then imagining how we
can make things differently.
1 Adrienne Shaw, LGBTQ Game Archive, accessed August 18, 2016, www.lgbtqgamearchive.
2 Jimmy Maher, “Leisure Suit Larry in the Land of the Lounge Lizards,” The Digital
Antiquarian, August 15, 2015, accessed September 12, 2016, www.filfre.net.
3 Maher, “Leisure Suit Larry.”
4 Brenda Brathwaite, Sex in Video Games (Middletown, DE: Brenda Brathwaite, 2013); and
Chris Kohler, “20 Years, Still Middle-Age: Two Decades of Leisure Suit Larry,” 1up.com,
August 8, 2007, accessed September 12, 2016, www.1up.com.
5 Maher, “Leisure Suit Larry”; and Matt Barton, “Matt Chat 50 Part 1: Leisure Suit Larry
Featuring Al Lowe,” YouTube video, 10:02, published February 21, 2010, accessed September 12, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9PGGEFQdZuw.
How to Play Video Games, edited by Nina B. Huntemann, and Matthew Thomas Payne, New York University Press, 2019. ProQuest Ebook Central,
Created from uci on 2020-03-26 09:57:03. Copyright © 2019. New York University Press. All rights reserved.
Leisure Suit Larry 117
6 Jimmy Maher, “Leather Goddesses of Phobos (or, Sex Comes to the Micros- Again),”
The Digital Antiquarian, March 5, 2015, accessed September 12, 2016, www.filfre.net; and
Al Lowe, “What Is Softporn?” Al Lowe’s Humor Site, n.d., accessed August 18, 2016,
7 Maher, “Leisure Suit Larry.”
8 Sue Ellen-Case, “The Hot Rod Bodies of Cybersex,” in Feminist Theory and the Body, ed.
Janet Price and Margrit Shildrick (New York: Routledge, 1999), 141.
9 Richard Dyer, “Stereotyping,” in The Columbia Reader on Lesbians and Gay men in Media,
Society, and Politics, ed. Larry P. Gross and James D. Woods (New York: Columbia University Press, 1999), 297–301.
10 “Leisure Suit Larry 6: Shape Up or Slip Out!” Wikipedia, n.d., accessed September 12,
2016, https://en.wikipedia.org.
11 Dyer, “Stereotyping.”
12 Maher, “Leisure Suit Larry.”
13 In the interest of space I do not go into the long histories of how different groups of men
of color are represented as overly sexual or desexualized but will mention in brief that
it would be hard to imagine a US-produced game about a black man or Asian man in
Larry’s role with whom the player is meant to identify.
14 Barton, “Matt Chat 50 Part 1: Leisure Suit Larry.”
15 Maher, “Leisure Suit Larry.”
16 Barton, “Matt Chat 50 Part 1: Leisure Suit Larry.”
Further Reading
Benshoff, Henry M., and Sean Griffin. Queer Images: A History of Gay and Lesbian Film in
America. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2006.
Consalvo, Mia. “Hot Dates and Fairy-Tale Romances: Studying Sexuality in Video Games.” In
The Video Game Theory Reader, edited by Mark J. P. Wolf and Bernard Perron, 171–194.
New York: Routledge, 2003.
Greer, Stephen. “Playing Queer: Affordances for Sexuality in Fable and Dragon Age.” Journal
of Gaming & Virtual Worlds 5 (2013): 3–21.
Shaw, Adrienne. “Putting the Gay in Games: Cultural Production and GLBT Content in
Video Games.” Games and Culture 4 (2009): 228–253.
How to Play Video Games, edited by Nina B. Huntemann, and Matthew Thomas Payne, New York University Press, 2019. ProQuest Ebook Central,
Created from uci on 2020-03-26 09:57:03. Copyright © 2019. New York University Press. All rights reserved.

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