Based on the presence or absence of a vascular system, plants have been classified into many categories. These vascular plants possess a special feature,which is absorption of water and minerals. Xylem and phloem are the two types of vascular tissue involved in the transportation process. Xylem is located in the middle of the vascular bundle, and phloem is located in the outer side of the vascular bundle. In monocot plants, cambium is absent, and so they do not possess the secondary tissue and this type is called closed vascular bundles. However,in dicot plants, cambium is present in between xylem and phloem, which provides the ability to form secondary growth, and hence it is called an open vascular bundle. The arrangement of xylem and phloem in an alternate manner in different radii is called radial; for example,root.While the arrangement of Xylem and phloem in the same radius are called conjoint vascular bundles example: stem and leaves.
Xylem is a specialized tissue in the vascular bundle present in a plant,which helps in the transport of water and minerals necessary for the plant body from the root to the tip of the leaves. Xylem possesses hollow dead cells. The root absorbs the water from the soil, which creates pressure on water inside the pole. As water gets evaporated from the leaves, the transpiration process pulls back water into the leaves. Thus,leaves are responsible for preventing water loss during transpiration and photosynthesis. Therefore, xylem acts as a straw that allows water to carry nutrient from the root to the tip of the plant (unidirectional).
Functions of Xylem:
Xylem provides mechanical support to the plant, thereby maintaining the plant architecture and its resistance to blending.
In woody plants, xylem grows and gets differentiated into lateral meristem called vascular cambium, which results in the production of secondary xylem and phloem.
The presence of xylem in wood is a valuable renewable resource. Xylem contains two main parts, namely tracheids and vessel elements. They are explained as follows:
They possess long thin cells that are connected by a tapered end. They have pits that run alongside the tapered end and help in transporting water from cell to cell. They contain a secondary cell wall called lignin compound,which is responsible for the creation of wood. The lignin in tracheids provides mechanical support to the xylem and the entire plant body.
Vessel elements are more efficient compared to tracheids. They are short and wider and are connected together end to end. The end of the cell is known as perforation plates, which have numerous holes in their cell walls to allow smooth movement of water between the cells. The vessel element is exclusively found in angiosperms.
In green plants, the photosynthesis process takes place,which produces nutrients that need to be transferred to the whole plant body for energy maintenance. The sugar molecules and other molecules enter the phloem, which is present end to end throughout the plant body. Phloem does not expire like xylem because xylemdies after one year and forms a new xylem. Phloem tissues are elongated, tubular structures with thin walls located outside the vascular bundle. They are present in the stem and leaves of the plant. They are capable of moving in upward and downward directions (bidirectional).
Functions of Phloem:
Phloem moves the photo-assimilates in the form of sugar from leaves to other parts of the plant body.
It helps in the translocation of synthesized food from the photosynthesis area to storage area such as root, tuber, and bulb of the plant body. Phloem consists of two main categories, namely the sieve tubes and companion cells. They are explained as follows:
Sieve tubes are considered to be the living cells running throughout the plant body from top to bottom, which cover the whole length of the plant. They contain porous ends called sieve plates in angiosperm,which provide strength to diffuse easily from one cell to another. Sieve tube cells lack some important structures such as ribosomes, nucleus, and vacuole where the role of companion cells comes in.
They run adjacent to the sieve tube and are connected by numerous channels called plasmodesmata. They possess specialized parenchyma cells and also carry out metabolic functions. Companion cells do not lack important structures such as nucleus and ribosomes.
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