Long-term memory and short-term memory

Short time memory is also known as primary memory. These types of memories are not rehearsed and last only for a particular period. Most of the information is stored in the mind for about 20 to 30 seconds. Some of the data can be stored in the mind for up to a minute but most of it perishes quite rapidly. Remembering a phone number is an example of short-term memory. When someone gives another person a phone number, another person can remember it mentally for a short period but after that, he/she no longer remembers it. Without revising the number continuously and repeating it again and again, the number gets easily lost from the mind. This is known as short term memory. It has been stated that people can store about five to nine items in short-term memory. This figure was given by a psychologist named George Miller. He wrote a paper “The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two”. In this paper, he suggested that the amount of information stored in the minds can vary. Some people can store about five items while others can store about nine items in short-term memory. The information which first enters the mind is stored in short term memory. This information on being repeatedly used eventually ends up in long-term memory. There are a few ways in which information is committed to long-term memory. One such strategy is repeating the information again and again which can keep resetting the memory clock and one can remember the information for a comparatively longer period. This approach is usually used when there is an exam. Instead of just reading the notes once, people tend to thoroughly revise the notes over and over again until the information is etched into the mind. Another strategy could be dividing the information into small chunks or slots which may help in remembering the information for a longer period.

The long-term storage of information is referred to as long-term memory. This memory does not quickly decay with time and quick in recalling than the short-term memory. People generally tend to store information that has a meaning to them or that can be mentally connected to related information for a longer time. Sometimes, our memory cannot keep information that is stored in long-term memory. Still, whenever any situation occurs in which that information is required, it can be easily recalled and that too with accuracy. For example, riding a bicycle is a skill that is learned in childhood. Some people generally think that they may not remember how to ride a bicycle in their adult life but when they try, it may come out quite naturally. Certain things can become a part of this memory very easily but others come via continuous practice. It is not stored in the original state permanently. These are subjected to change, disruption, and misinformation. It was assumed that the long-term information is stored only in the cerebral cortex stores. It is now proven that different regions of the brain store it and also some parts of the nervous system. The duration of long-term memory is influenced by the factor called is memory recall. This is the reason for better information retrieval that is repeated over and over again. If someone pays attention to information and focuses on it which is stored for a longer duration. Long term memory is divided into two types: Explicit Memory and Implicit Memory

Explicit Memory: It is the type of memory that is available in our consciousness. It is also known as declarative memory. It can be classified as episodic memory and semantic memory. Episodic memory in which specific events information that happened in a person’s life is being stored. For example, the name of the city a person is born in. Semantic memory stores factual information; it includes knowledge about the world. For example, information about the solar system or information about the capitals of the states is stored in the form of semantic memory

Implicit Memory: It is a memory that is mostly unconscious. It is the memory works opposite to declarative memory and it primarily includes procedural memory. Procedural memory is the memory that stores the way to do things. It involves the memory of body movement. For example, driving a car or riding a bicycle

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