â€œA dynamic complex of animals, plants,â€¯microbial communities and non-living environment that interact as functional unitsâ€ is defined as an ecosystem by conventions on biodiversity. Ecosystem dynamics and the provision of ecosystem services depend on the functioning of the entire ecosystem, not individual components of the ecosystem. Ecosystems include abiotic and biotic factors or inanimate parts. Abiotic factors are stones, temperature, and humidity and biological factors include plants, animals, and other organisms. Each element of the ecosystem indirectly or directly depends on all other elements. For example, changes in ecosystem temperature often affect the plants growing there. Animals that depend for food and protection on plants must adapt to change, migrate to other ecosystems. The size of ecosystems can be very small or very large. The tide pool left in the ocean until the tide disappears is a whole small ecosystem. The tidal basin is home to algae, a type of algae that uses photosynthesis to cook food. Herbivores like cod feed on algae.
There are usually two types of environmental models that are applied to different types of problems.
Stimulation / computational models
Numerical methods to solve problems are used in simulation models for which analytical solutions are impractical or impossible On the other hand, analytical models are typically relatively simple (often linear) systems whose behavior can be accurately described using a set of known mathematical equations. Simulation models are considered more environmentally realistic and, are generally used more frequently. While analytical models are valuable because of their explanatory power and mathematical elegance. Ecopath is a powerful software system for modeling marine ecosystems using modeling and computational techniques. It is widely used by fisheries scientists and marine scientists as a tool for visualizing and modeling the complex relationships that exist in real marine ecosystems.
Types of Modeling ecosystem services:
Spatial modeling techniques:
Spatial modeling is required to create a holistic ecosystem map for the entire ecosystem accounting unit, covering various aspects of ecosystem capacity, health, and flow of ecosystem services. Data are often missing for specific areas and indicators. In this case, to create a comprehensive map you can use spatial interpolation and/or modeling techniques.
This usually requires a combination of different data, including oran thematic maps, remote sensing images,â€¯ ecological units, or surveys of specific administrative, and point data for specific surveys. The various datasets used must be spatially defined. That is, it must be referenced to a spatially defined control point using a coordinate system suitable for the point or map data. Sometimes special coordination system is used by countries in the statistical office. In this case, it is beneficial to use the same regulation system. Spatial modeling tools can be used to model ecosystem services.â€˜ Look-up Tablesâ€™â€¯is the simplest approach. More sophisticated methods not only allow you to extrapolate missing points or data but also allow you to model services or more complex processes based on statistical data.
Temporal modeling techniques:
Temporal modeling is required in SEEA-EEA to predict the capacity of an ecosystem to produce ecosystem services over time. Ecosystem assets particularly depend on the ability of ecosystem services produced over time. This ability is based on standing stock function, natural use (e.g. increased wood availability due to re-growth after harvest),â€¯ecosystem management (e.g. fire extinguishing,) and losses from natural processes (e.g. hurricane damage). When an asset is measured in monetary terms, the value of the asset reflects the expected present value of an ecosystem service flow (NPV) (for example, the decrease in the net value of timber flows over the discount period). So, you need to model timber flow for each unit of account. The best modeling approach for understanding the ecosystem services flow is a dynamic systems approach. This approach is based on modeling flow (velocity) and several state (level) variables to determine the state of an ecosystem, including associated outputs and inputs over time.
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