A cell is the basic functional entity of all living organisms,which contains a substance called deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). DNA holds four chemicals, namely adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine (A, T, G, and C),which are relatively thin, coiled strands in a cell. Cells are not visible to the naked eye, and they can be viewed only through microscope. Each cell in the body contains six feet DNA thread. Thus, DNA makes up the gene with four nucleotides A, T, G, and C, which carries the genetic information for body functioning (such as releasing enzymes to digest food or providing pigment that gives color to the eyes).
DNA wraps up each other to form a structure called chromosome. The human body contains 23 pairs of chromosomes which make up 46 chromosomes. Distinct egg and sperm cells contain 23 unpaired chromosomes, where one half of the chromosomes will be from the motherâ€™s egg and another half from the fatherâ€™s sperm cell. A male child accepts one X chromosome from his mother and one Y chromosome from his father,while the female child receives X chromosomes from both parents. Chromosomes carry the segments of DNA or sections of a gene that determine the human characteristics (such as hair color and height).
Transferring of one gene from one generation to other is called heredity. Every individual inherits genes from their parent gene,which provides them distinct characteristics such as black hair, black eyes, tall, or short.
The alteration in the sequence of a gene can cause mutation. The modified gene continues to replicate in the altered form. This mutation can cause a severe change in the development of an organism. For example: Sickle cell anemia is caused by the change in a single amino acid that alters the hemoglobin form. Genes are altered by substitution or deletion of nucleotides. Adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine are called as nucleotides. Mutationsthat may occur in various forms are as follows: Substitution: In substitution or point mutation, a single nucleotide changes to another nucleotide. Insertion or Deletion: Addition of a single base to the normal sequence may disrupt the transcription process and alter the translation by shifting the reading frame. For example, frameshift mutation that occurs in the mRNA strand includes two codons: AUG and UGA. Addition of cytosine to the beginning of the strand may change the gene sequence (CAU GUG) and alter amino acid sequence during the translation process. The resultant protein from the translational process may have harmful effect or does not carry the functional part.
Transposition mutation: The parts of DNA containing one or more genes may move from one chromosome to another by gene jumping, which may affect the amino acid type that comes under transposition mutation. Mutagens are caused by the mutation exposure to physical or chemical agents in the environment.
Insertion or Deletion:
Addition of a single base to the normal sequence may disrupt the transcription process and alter the translation by shifting the reading frame. For example, frameshift mutation that occurs in the mRNA strand includes two codons: AUG and UGA. Addition of cytosine to the beginning of the strand may change the gene sequence (CAU GUG) and alter amino acid sequence during the translation process. The resultant protein from the translational process may have harmful effect or does not carry the functional part.
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