To produce mineral acids, various types of chemicals are used. Sulphuric acid, nitric acid, and hydrochloric acid are mainly used. These chemicals show a difference in their behavior. Sulphuric acid is an acid catalyst and shows toxicity, corrosivity, and due to its less cost, it is mostly preferred. The addition of sulphuric acid to lignocellulose leads to the removal of hemicellulose. When the acid hydrolysis was performed on sugarcane, it was observed that higher yields of monomeric sugars were obtained. The complete hydrolysis of cellulose can be done at a faster rate with the help of hydrochloric acid. The temperature at 50 \ ^o \rm C50
C can make the hydrolysis of cellulose faster. Hydrochloric acid shows corrosive properties and its properties are changed due to environmental conditions. Hence, the use of hydrochloric acid for the lignocellulose pre-treatment is limited. The conversion of hemicellulose into monomeric sugars is not as effective by nitric acid, as compared to the use of sulphuric acid. Hence, the use of nitric acid is limited for this conversion. The acid treatment is carried out in the presence of high and low concentrations of acid and temperature. When a high concentration of acid is used the temperature used is low, whereas when a low concentration of acid is used, a high temperature is required. When the highly concentrated acid is treated at a higher temperature for a longer time, it can break the cellulose along with hemicellulose.
Precautions while handling mineral acids
Mineral acids are soluble in water but are insoluble in an organic solvent. If they react with the skin, they cause burning sensation to the skin and eyes. Studies have shown that all the concentrated acids react vigorously when they react with water and bases, and result in the production of heat. Due to the dangerous effects of the acids, care needs to be taken to avoid mishaps.
Hydrochloric acid is made up of hydrogen chloride and water. It has a pungent odor and can cause an impact on the eyes and the respiratory system if inhaled. Hydrochloric acid has the ability to dissolve noble metals with the evolution of flammable hydrogen gas.
Nitric acid is an oxidizable organic compound. It oxidizes at a faster rate when kept at room temperature. Anhydrous nitric acid forms an explosive when it is mixed with an organic compound. They also react with metals liberating hydrogen gas or nitrogen gas depending on the concentration of metals.
Sulphuric acid is a strong oxidizer and a dehydrating agent. Dilute sulphuric acid reacts with metals which liberates hydrogen gas. Sulphuric acid reacts violently with organic chemicals.
Due to the harmful reactions of these acids, precautions such as wearing standard laboratory attire, safety goggles, gloves are very important.
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