Procedural And Object-Oriented Programming

Procedural programming is a methodology of programming where a series of step-by-step functions follow a top-down approach to call a program. Procedural programming is less secure because it does not have a proper way to hide data members.Here, the importance of functions is higher than the data. Also, in procedural programming there is no use of access specifier.

It is hard to modify the data in procedural programming. If some data needs to be changed in function, then it requires making changes in the whole program, which is a very complicated and time-consuming process. Given below is an example of the C program to demonstrate data modification in procedural programming.

This program will increment the integer value by 1.

//header file

#include <stdio.h>

//function prototype

int increment(int);

//function definition

int increment(int a)


//incremented value by 1

return a+1;


//main function

int main()

{ //Declared variable

int value=3, result;

//Calling of function


//printing the result

printf(“The value after the increment is: %d”,result);

//return to the main function

return 0;


If a user needs to make a change in program so that it takes floating-point value and give a result with decimal value, then the user needs to make the following change in program.

//header file

#include <stdio.h>

//function prototype

float increment(float );

//function definition

float increment(float a)


//incremented value by 1

return a+1;


//main function

int main()


//Declared variable

float value=3.0, result;

//Calling of function


//printing the result

printf(“The value after the increment is: %f”,result);

//return to the main function

return 0;

} This type of programming is useful to solve a small and less complex problem like basic calculation. It does not support the concept of function overloading that would allow it to load a function with a few or more argument lists. It can only load the function with the same number and the same data type of the argument list.

Object-oriented programming
Object-oriented programming is a methodology of programming where both data and functions are encapsulated in a class and these classes are called by an instance of the class, which is also called an object. Object-oriented programming follows the bottom-up approach. It is highly secure because it supports oops (object-oriented programming) security features like access specifiers and data abstraction.

The characteristics of object-oriented programming:

1. Class

2. Objects

3. Polymorphism

4. Abstraction

5. Encapsulation

6. Inheritance

Class and objects: Class is a logical entity which comprises of a collection of objects. Object is considered as an instance of class. A class can have multiple instances.

Polymorphism: Itis the approach to do different types of tasks with the same functions. It is achieved by passing different types of arguments in a large quantity in a function while keeping the function name the same for all. See the example in the below illustration.

add (int a)

add (int a, int b)

add (float a, float b)

The function name add is the same in all three functions, but the argument list and argument type are different.

Abstraction: It is a feature that shows the functionalities to the user but hides the internal details. The most common example is a mobile phone. The mobile phone user knows the functionalities but is unaware of the internal processing.

Encapsulation: This feature wraps the functions and data in a single unit. A common example to illustrate this feature is a capsule that wraps different medicines inside it.

Inheritance: It is a way to reuse the existing class in the current class. It has one superclass and one subclass. A subclass inherits the features of the superclass.


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