Types of Ecological Succession:
The primary succession takes place in volcanic islands or various barren lands. The respective region has no history of the existence of life forms. The lichens are identified as the initiator agents of the primary succession. They do not requires the soil to derive nutrition and water and are thus called pioneer species. the end of the life span of the lichens will cause the mixing of the organics matter and the rock particles for the formation of soil, which favor the growth of primitive plants such as the ferns and mosses. The death of these plants results in improvising the quantity of organic matter in the soil. The thickening of the soil is identified to take place. It favors the growth of grasses and other terrestrial planets. The decomposition of these plants will add lots of organic material into the soil and will aid the growth of trees and shrubs. The development of shrubs and trees will attract the mammals, birds, and insects to the respective site with abundant natural resources. This will lead to the formation of an ecosystem.
The pioneer species are the organisms that initially host a barren land or rock in the primary succession. The organism includes mosses and lichens. The lichens progress the process of weathering, which is the degradation of the rock for the discharge of various minerals. The complexity of minerals reduces from the action of the lichens and favors the formation of soil. The soil with a very low amount of organic material can host plants such as ferns and mosses. These plants will grow abundantly and will progress the nutritional enrichment of the soil with organic materials.
The re-stabilization of the living state of a particular region is the secondary succession. The effect of various natural or man-made disasters will lead to the extinction of life forms in a particular area. This region will have humus and can easily favor the reestablishment of life forms. A community is replaced by another community in the secondary ecological succession. The rate of growth of organisms in the secondary succession is found to be rapid than the primary succession. The soil is left intact in most natural disasters and the process mainly takes place after a forest fire. The roots and seeds may be residing inside the soil even after a natural disaster and there will be rich biomass located in the soil.
The completion of ecological succession marks the formation of the climax community. This community is found to be mature and stable. The climax community remains the same when left undisturbed and the organisms vary for the type of region hosting the ecological succession. The vegetation forming the climax community is highly tolerant of the ecological conditions provided by the environment. The diversity of the food chains and the species diversity is identified to be more in the climax community. The organisms of the climax community are replaced by the same organisms to sustain the equilibrium of the species composition. The living organisms thriving in the climax community depicts the type of climate of the respective region.
Factors Affecting the Primary and Secondary Ecological Succession:
The factors affecting the ecological succession in an environment include the rate of rainfall and the temperature. The extreme temperatures and rainfall are unsuitable for the existence of life. The volcanic islands cool down after a particular time period and host life after primary succession. The rise of the rate of rainfall in dry and barren lands will favor the regeneration of life. The lowering of the rate of rainfall in the flooded regions will also support the development of succession.
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