In reaction to the cold in warm-blooded animals, shivering (also called shuddering) is a body feature. The shivering reflex is activated to preserve homeostasis when the core body temperature decreases. In small movements, skeletal muscles begin to shake, generating warmth by expending energy. As an individual can feel cold, shivering may also be a response to fever. The hypothalamus has a set point of temperature that increases during the illness or pathogenic attack and results in fever or pyrexia. This causes the person to feel extreme chills or rigors that cause violent shivering, and the person feels cold. The rigors increase because the body temperature has to be raised to the new setpoint, and thus, the patient shivers continuously to produce heat and keep the body warm.
A region of the posterior hypothalamus called the primary motor core, which is responsible for shivering. This region is inhibited by the signals arising from the anterior hypothalamic preoptic regionâ€™s heat center but soon gets activated when the person is feeling cold. The cold signals arise even on a slight drop in optimum temperature and are stimulated from the skin and spinal cord that further activates the shivering center. Shivering causes the muscles to produce energy and heat that is a by-product, and the energy is mainly used only to keep the body warm and increase the bodyâ€™s internal temperature.
The cold condition dealing differs in children, young, and adults. On comparing the two groups, it was observed that the adults have low heat loss because the children and young do not undergo the shivering method to retain heat. During the cold-stressed condition, they undergo thermogenesis, such as the presence of brown adipose tissue and release of norepinephrine to deal with low internal temperature. Children have an increased number of mitochondria and vascular supply, due to which they have higher oxygen intake. The fat tissues are broken down to triglycerides that are converted into non-esterified fatty acids and glycerol and later forms carbon dioxide and water. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generated in mitochondria with the help of proton electromotive force is used to generate more heat.
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