The voltage-gated calcium ion (Ca2+) channels open up in the synaptic knob when the action potential reaches the exon terminal of a presynaptic neuron. The influx of calcium ions induces the release of neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine molecules from the synaptic vesicles, into the synaptic cleft or the space between two neurons through the exocytosis process. The neurotransmitter binds to their receptors on the postsynaptic membrane by diffusing across the synaptic cleft. The binding of the neurotransmitter triggers the opening of ion-gated channels in the postsynaptic membrane. This leads to changes in the membrane potential of the postsynaptic neuron. Now, the change in potential could be excitatory or inhibitory. When the neurotransmitter-induced postsynaptic potential change leads toward depolarization events, thus increasing the chances of an action potential to be generated, then it is called excitatory postsynaptic potential or EPSP. However, when the potential change in the postsynaptic membrane brought about by the neurotransmitters decreases the chances of an action potential, then it is called inhibitory postsynaptic potential or IPSP.
Synapses that lead to EPSP are said to be excitatory, while those that induce IPSP are said to be inhibitory. Now a single EPSP generation from an impulse might not be enough to cause an action potential to be generated. Moreover, IPSP moves the membrane potential further away from the threshold for generating an action potential. As such, the phenomenon of summation comes into play. It is thus a highly crucial event in neurophysiology whereby the integration of electrical impulses from all the synapses whether excitatory or inhibitory occurs and drives the postsynaptic neuron to reach the threshold membrane potential required to generate an action potential.
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