Most of the animal eggs possess an invisible polarity, which determines the animal pole and vegetal pole. The animal pole is present at the eggâ€™s anterior part, while the vegetal pole is present at the posterior part of the egg. These poles arise as a result of cleavage and polarity results due to the arrangement of the yolk granules in the cytoplasm of the egg. In animals exhibiting holoblastic cleavage like the amphibians, the process of cleavage onsets at the animal pole, extending slowly down to the vegetal pole. The animal-vegetal poleâ€™s developmental axis occurs prior to the process of fertilization. However, the point of sperm entry forms the animal pole, and the region, which is opposite to the spermâ€™s entry point, forms the vegetal pole.
Characteristics of animal pole:
The eggâ€™s symmetrical axis passes from the animal to the vegetal pole. The animal pole is characterized by the presence of fewer amounts of yolk granules and the density of the yolk increases when moved from animal to vegetal pole. The highest quantity of yolk granules is present in the eggâ€™s vegetal pole, while the highest pigmentation is found in the animal pole. It also has clear cytoplasm, which is destined to form the ectoderm. Further, the animal pole also has the nucleus, which is formed by the fusion of the sperm and ovum. This nucleus is primitive in nature and thus, it is known as the pronucleus. Thus, the presence of the pronucleus towards the anterior end marks the animal pole. Therefore, the animal pole remains highly pigmented and is devoid of the yolk granules, while the vegetal pole is not pigmented and is rich in yolk granules. In frogs, the pattern of pigmentation provides the oocyte the radial symmetry pattern and also the distinct polarity. The pigmentation of the animal pole makes the animal pole appear darker, while the vegetal pole appears lighter due to light pigmentation. The process of the first division of cleavage starts at the animal pole. In some animals, the second division also starts at the animal pole itself, passes through the animal hemisphere, and bisects the gray crescent region.
Functions of animal pole:
The animal pole is involved in the differentiation of the later embryo. It has several positional information, which is important for operating the embryoâ€™s early development and controlling the patterns in spatial organization and differentiation of the developing embryo. The animal pole is activated by various developmental signals and differentiates into the primary germ layers and also the animal pole participates in the process of gastrulation. Gastrulation is the process by which the single-layered blastula undergoes transformation into a multilayered gastrula. The animal poleâ€™s outermost layer gives rise to the ectoderm, which in turn forms the skinâ€™s epidermal layer. The animal poleâ€™s midline gives rise to the neural ectoderm, which forms the nervous system. The gray crescent layer, which is present between the animal and the vegetal pole, is the site of movement of the cell. The mesoderm also arises from the gray crescent region, while the vegetal pole forms the inner endoderm layer.
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