Reproduction is an important process for a species to continue its existence. Reproduction has two modesâ€”sexual and asexual. Asexual reproduction is the one in which genetically identical offspring are produced and the involvement of a single parent is only required. A large number of offspring can be produced by this method and all are clones of the parent. Many lower organisms such as bacteria and fungi and also single-celled eukaryotic organisms undergo asexual reproduction and produce their offspring. Asexual reproduction takes place by fission, budding, fragmentation, and parthenogenesis. Sexual reproduction is the one in which two parents are involved. The reproductive cells called gametes of male and female combine together and form genetically unique offspring. The male gametes are known as sperm and female gametes are called egg or ova. The fusion of egg and sperm results in the formation of a zygote. The process of fertilization can take place inside or outside the female body. When fertilization happens inside a female body, it is called internal fertilization. The development of an embryo takes place in the motherâ€™s womb, and the infant comes out of the female body after the gestation period. For example, in humans and other mammals, internal fertilization takes place. When the fusion of gametes takes place outside the female body, it is called external fertilization. In this mode, both sperm and eggs are released in the outside environment, mostly aquatic environments, and they fuse in water to produce offspring. This type of fertilization is seen in frogs, fishes, and other aquatic animals.
External fertilization is a very important mode of fertilization that takes place in all lower vertebrates. The release of sperm and egg cells in the water by the partners is called spawning. The release of both gametes should occur at the same time for fertilization to be successful. Different factors involved in external fertilization that help the process of spawning to occur simultaneously are given below:
- The environmental conditions like temperature and light and pheromones play an important role in the generation of cues that make males and females to release gametes. The lower vertebrates such as mollusks, crustaceans, and some fishes undergo spawning due to these factors. The male and female do not have any physical contact, but they come to the same area, so that the probability of fertilization increases.
- In many amphibians and fishes, the male and female undergo courtship and the release of sperms and egg cells takes place in water. The cells fuse and form a zygote.
- In marine organisms, a very interesting phenomenon of fertilization called broadcast spawning takes place. In this process, millions of eggs and sperm are released by different marine organisms. The organisms can be sessile or moving. Due to more chances of mixing of a variety of genes, this process leads to higher genetic diversity, and the species produced will be more successful in survival and more adaptable to the environment.
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