Regulating Ecosystem Services
Many life-supporting basic services are provided by the ecosystem. For instance, purification of air and water by plants, pollination of flowers by bees, decomposition of waste by bacteria, prevention of soil erosion by the roots of trees, and many other services.
The following services are included in regulating ecosystem services:
Local Climate regulation- ecosystem impacts the local climate and the quality of air.
Pollutants present in the air can affect the growth and other metabolic processes in plant species which impact the crop yield. Crops can also play a significant role to clean the air.
The emission of ammonia by livestock can have an adverse effect on the air quality, this impact can be reduced by installing filters in barns.
Trees in an urban area help to improve air quality in several ways: they fix carbon dioxide by the process of photosynthesis and release oxygen as a by-product. They reduce the amount the particulate matter and other poisonous gases (sulfur dioxide, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide) in the air. They regulate the temperature in winter and summer.
Carbon sequestration- is the process in which carbon is stored in the form of organic matter mainly by the process of photosynthesis in plants.
About one-third of the total greenhouse gas emission is from soil cultivation and land-use conversion. The emission can be reduced by improving agricultural practices.
About 93% of the carbon dioxide on Earth is stored in the ocean. It also takes up around one-third of the surplus carbon dioxide present in the air.
Aquaculture and fisheries maintain â€œblue carbonâ€ sinks and support carbon sequestration.
Waste-water treatment- wetland ecosystems filter sewage, eliminate harmful pathogens, and decompose organic waste through microbial activity.
Wastewater treatment can be done by improving agricultural designs such as the use of buffer strips or wetlands.
Aquatic animals such as mollusks and fishes play important role in maintaining the functioning of the ecosystem and processes essential for maintaining the quality of water.
Trees are important contributors to waste-water treatment through their roots.
Prevention of soil erosion and maintenance of fertile soil- soil erosion is the removal of the top fertile layer of the soil by natural or man-made processes that adversely affect soil fertility, and leads to degradation of land and desertification.
Cattles play important role in improving the fertility of the soil, their excreta contain organic waste which acts as manure and replenishes nutrients in the soil. On the other hand, live stocks can also cause soil erosion by overgrazing. To avoid such problems, rational or rotational grazing should be encouraged.
Fishes can help to reduce soil erosion along lakes, rivers, and coastal areas by maintaining sediment processes. If the canopy structure, land cover, and spacing in the tree of an agriculture system resemble the forest, then the chance of soil erosion is lesser. Pollination is an important step in the process of sexual reproduction in flowering plants. Insects are the most important pollinators of all.
Many processes such as food diversity, food security, food prices, and human nutrition are strongly dependent on animal pollinators. But these pollinators are facing threats due to excessive use of pesticides, habitat destruction, and others.
By increasing the diversity of plants in plains, the insect pollinators could be benefited.
Pollinators are important for pollinating freshwater plants such as water lilies. They maintain a balance in the aquatic ecosystem and indirectly supports fisheries.
Regulation of water flow- vegetation cover plays important role in regulating the flow of water. Controlled water flow also prevents soil erosion and maintains the groundwater level.
Agriculture has a strong impact on the regulation of water flow. Waterflow can be regulated by managing grasslands. Livestock is large consumers of water in grasslands hence they play important role in its regulation.
Forests have a major impact on water availability and water flow. Water flow regulation by forests is the result of evaporation, transpiration, infiltration, and evapotranspiration.
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