The bloodstream carries nutrients and other important molecules that various tissues require. However, it also carries the waste products that it receives from different tissues. As blood passes through the filtration membranes in the kidney, only small solutes and water pass into the kidneys from blood. The proteins and other essential large molecules remain in the blood.
During the reabsorption phase, the filtrate moves through many specialized duct structures. Here, other essential molecules that pass through the filtration membrane are reabsorbed into the body. This includes essential ions, glucose, amino acids, and small proteins.
Finally, certain ions and water are passed into the filtrate to make urine in the secretion phase. Urine is composed mainly 95% of water and 5% of other molecules such as urea, creatine, ammonia, uric acid, and ions such as potassium, sodium, and hydrogen.
Loss of Nutrients
Various ions and some molecules are lost from the body through urine excretion. Essential minerals such as calcium, sodium, and potassium are called electrolytes. These electrolytes that play vital physiological functions may be lost in urine or through sweat.
In its extreme case, a condition known as diuresis, individuals urinate 4- 6 times daily. This results in extensive loss of electrolytes and other minerals, ultimately causing fatigue. The cause of diuresis may be blocking of water reabsorption due to glucose accumulation, such as in diabetic patients.
It can also be caused due to diuretic pills that cause excess excretion of fluids from the body. Herbs like dandelion, green tea, and black tea are natural diuretics.
Those suffering from hypercalcemia have an excess of calcium minerals in the body, promoting greater expulsion of calcium through urine.
Water-soluble vitamins are frequently excreted in the urine. Since they are soluble in water, they are not stored in the body like the fat-soluble vitamins. Thus, they need to be consistently replenished. Vitamin B complex and vitamin C are examples of water-soluble vitamins.
Diet and Urine
The frequency and urgency to pass urine are correlated with dietary intake. For instance, carbonated drink consumption is likely to cause an overactive bladder. Similarly, caffeine and alcohol in diet can increase the urgency for urination. Similar effects are observed with artificial sweeteners.
A deficiency of vitamin D is associated with increased frequency and urgency of urination. The urinary frequency and urgency can be reduced by consuming vitamin C from fruits and vegetable sources.
Urine can also be associated with diet as a diagnostic tool. Urinary tests to look for the presence or absence of certain molecules in the diet can be indicators of a person’s nutritional health.
The metabolites identified in a personâ€™s urine sample can be traced back to the type of diet and the specialized metabolism of the individual. Such tests help clinicians predict and diagnose diseases associated with digestion, nutrition, and metabolic disorders.
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