The members of Proseriata, Catenulida, and Macrostomida have one or more terminal cell and proximal tubule cells in their weir apparatus with distinct ciliary rootlets. Almost all members of these groups have outer rods. The Catenulida have unique outer rods because they are perpendicular to weir length. There are paired protonephridia systems in the members of Proseriata and Macrostomida with more than 10 cilia while the system in Catenulida is unpaired. Proseriata has two cords that are thick, while most Macrostomida has only one. Both these groups have internal leptotriches and the proximal and terminal tubule cells are connected by septate junctions.
This system in Lecithopitheliata, Prolecithophora with some exception, Dalyelliodia, typhloplanoida, and Temnocephala has many similarities. Their weir is made of the single terminal bulb and rod cells in a single row separated by a membrane. Some members have thick cords, while some completely lack cords. There is a variation of ciliary rootlets from striated form to rudimentary form among members of these groups. Some of these members lack external and internal leptotriches eg. Dalyellioda, Tricladida, and Prolecithophora have septate junctions in distal tubules, while tubules in other groups are of a syncytial type. Only members of the genus Dalyellioda have reticular, microvilli, and lamellae. Along the tubules, the cilia are present in the Tricladida.
Significance of Protonephridia:
For studying the evolutionary relationship among Platyhelminthes, protonephridia characteristics are widely studied. To study evolutionary relationships, various methods like phylogenetic systematic, transformed classism, and phenetic taxonomy are used but scientists have suggested that the most justifiable approach is phylogenetic systematics. Rohde gave a cladogram, which was a modified cladogram of the one given by Ehlers. Protonephridial features give abundant information for the construction of a cladogram. In his studies, he concluded that Neodermata’s connection with Proseriata and Macrostomida was very strong than Lecithoepitheliata and Rhabocoela.
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