The usefulness of metals in structural and other applications depends on their physical and chemical
properties. Although iron is the most common metal used in manufacturing, it must be protected against
corrosion because rusts easily. Copper is used in electrical wiring because it conducts electricity extremely well and resists corrosion better than many metals. Gold is a highly valuable jewelry metal because it is essentially unreactive. How can we determine the relative reactivity of different metals?
To determine the activity of metals you can compare the reactions of metals with different
metal ions. Consider equation 1 and 2 below:
2Al(s)Â + 3CuCl2(aq) Â –> Â Â 2AlCl3(aq)Â + 3Cu(s)Â Â Â Â (Equation 1)
Cu(s) Â + AlCl3(aq) Â Â –> Â Â No Reaction Â Â Â Â Â Â (Equation 2)
The reaction of aluminum with copper (II) chloride (Equation 1) is classified as a single replacement reaction â€“ aluminum reacts with and â€œreplacesâ€ copper ions in copper (II) chloride. Single replacement reactions will occur spontaneously in one direction only (compare Equations 1 and 2). A more active metal always replaces the ion of a less active metal. In general, the activity of a metal may be defined as follows:
An active metal will react with a compound of a less active metal, which is converted to its â€œfree elementâ€ form. The more active metal forms a new compound containing metal cations. Based on Equation 1, aluminum is more active than copper and therefore replaces the copper (this is called a single replacement reaction).Â
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