Understanding the Process of Writing Correspondence

Corresponding in Print and Online
Chapter Introduction
Understanding the Process of Writing Correspondence
FOCUS ON PROCESS: Correspondence
Selecting a Type of Correspondence
Presenting Yourself Effectively in Correspondence
ETHICS NOTE: Writing Honest Business Correspondence
Writing Letters
Elements of a Letter
Common Types of Letters
Writing Memos
GUIDELINES: Organizing a Memo
Writing Emails
TECH TIP: Why and How To Use Email for Business Correspondence
GUIDELINES: Following Netiquette
DOCUMENT ANALYSIS ACTIVITY: Following Netiquette in an Email Message
Writing Microblogs
GUIDELINES: Representing Your Organization on a Microblog
Writing Correspondence to Multicultural Readers
CASE 17: Setting Up and Maintaining a Professional Microblog Account
Understanding the Process of Writing Correspondence
The process of writing correspondence is essentially like that of writing any other kind of workplace
document. The Focus on Process box presents an overview of this process, focusing on letters, memos, and
emails. The more formal the correspondence, the more time you are likely to spend on each of these steps.
FOCUS ON PROCESS: Correspondence
When writing correspondence, pay special attention to these steps of the writing process.
PLANNING You will need to choose the appropriate type of correspondence for your writing
DRAFTING For letters, memos, and emails, clearly state your purpose, use headings to help
your readers, summarize your message, provide adequate background, organize
the discussion, and highlight action items. For microblogs, state your message or
question clearly.
REVISING You might need to write correspondence quickly, but you still need to write
carefully. Review the section of the Writer’s Checklist at the end of this chapter
that applies to your document.
EDITING See Chapter 10 for advice on writing correct and effective sentences.
PROOFREADING See Appendix, Part C, for proofreading tips.
Selecting a Type of Correspondence
When you need to correspond with others in the workplace, your first task is to decide on the appropriate
type of document. Here are the main characteristics of each major type:
Letters. Because letters still use centuries-old conventions such as the salutation and complimentary
close, they are the most formal of the four types of correspondence and are therefore most appropriate for
communicating with people outside your organization or, in some formal situations, with people within
your organization. Letters are typically sent through the postal service or a shipping company, though
they can also be attached to emails.
Memos. This type of correspondence is moderately formal and therefore appropriate for people in your
own organization. Memos can be distributed via interoffice mail or through emails (as attachments).
Email. This type of correspondence is best for quick, relatively informal communication with one or
many recipients. Recipients can store and forward email easily, as well as capture the text and reuse it in
other documents. In addition, the writer can attach other files to an email message.
Microblog posts. Microblog posts such as Twitter tweets or Facebook status updates can be useful to
address quick questions to a group. This is the most informal type of correspondence.
Presenting Yourself Effectively in Correspondence
When you write business correspondence, follow these five suggestions for presenting yourself as a
Use the appropriate level of formality.
Communicate correctly.
Project the “you attitude.”
Avoid correspondence clichés.
Communicate honestly.
People are sometimes tempted to use informal writing in informal digital applications such as email and
microblogs. Don’t. Everything you write on the job is legally the property of the organization for which you
work, and messages are almost always archived digitally, even after senders and recipients have deleted
them. Your documents might be read by the company president, or they might appear in a newspaper or in a
court of law. Therefore, use a moderately formal tone to avoid potential embarrassment.
Our meeting with United went south right away when they threw a hissy fit, saying
that we blew off the deadline for the progress report.
In our meeting, the United representative expressed concern that we had missed
the deadline for the progress report.
However, you don’t want to sound like a dictionary.
TOO FORMAL It was indubitably the case that our team was successful in presenting a proposal
that was characterized by quality of the highest order. My appreciation for your
industriousness is herewith extended.
I think we put together an excellent proposal. Thank you very much for your hard
One issue closely related to formality is correctness. As discussed in Chapter 1, correct writing is free of
errors in grammar, punctuation, style, usage, and spelling. Correctness problems occur most often in email
and microblogs.
Some writers mistakenly think that they do not need to worry about correctness because these digital
applications are meant for quick communication. They are wrong. You have to plan your digital
correspondence just as you plan any other written communication, and you should revise, edit, and proofread
it. Sending correspondence that contains language errors is unprofessional because it suggests a lack of
respect for your reader –– and for yourself. It also causes your reader to think that you are careless about
your job.
For more about editing, see Ch. 3, pp. 57–58; for more about proofreading, see Ch. 3, p. 58.
Correspondence should convey a courteous, positive tone. The key to accomplishing this task is using the
“you attitude” — looking at the situation from the reader’s point of view and adjusting the content, structure,
and tone to meet his or her needs. For example, if you are writing to a supplier who has failed to deliver
some merchandise by the agreed-on date, the “you attitude” dictates that you not discuss problems you are
having with other suppliers; those problems don’t concern your reader. Instead, concentrate on explaining
clearly and politely that the reader has violated your agreement and that not having the merchandise is
costing you money. Then propose ways to expedite the shipment.
Following are two examples of thoughtless sentences, each followed by an improved version that shows
the “you attitude.”
ACCUSING You must have dropped the engine. The housing is badly cracked.
BETTER The badly cracked housing suggests that the engine must have fallen onto a hard
surface from some height.
SARCASTIC You’ll need two months to deliver these parts? Who do you think you are, the post
BETTER Surely you would find a two-month delay for the delivery of parts unacceptable in
your business. That’s how I feel, too.
A calm, respectful tone makes the best impression and increases the chances that you will achieve your goal.
Over the centuries, a group of words and phrases have come to be associated with business correspondence;
one common example is as per your request. These phrases sound stilted and insincere. Don’t use them.
For more about choosing the right words and phrases, see Ch. 10, p. 228.
Table 14.1 is a list of common clichés and their plain-language equivalents. Figure 14.1 shows two
versions of the same email: one written in clichés, the other in plain language.
TABLE 14.1 Clichés and Plain-Language Equivalents
attached please find attached is
enclosed please find enclosed is
pursuant to our agreement as we agreed
referring to your (“Referring to your letter of
March 19, the shipment of pianos …”)
“As you wrote in your letter of March 19, the …” (or
subordinate the reference at the end of your sentence)
wish to advise (“We wish to advise that …”) (The phrase doesn’t say anything. Just say what you want to
the writer (“The writer believes that …”) “I believe …”
FIGURE 14.1 Sample Emails with and Without Clichés
You should communicate honestly when you write any kind of document, and business correspondence is no
exception. Communicating honestly shows respect for your reader and for yourself.
Why is dishonesty a big problem in correspondence? Perhaps because the topics discussed in business
correspondence often relate to the writer’s professionalism and the quality of his or her work. For instance,
when a salesperson working for a supplier writes to a customer explaining why a product did not arrive on
time, he is tempted to make it seem as if his company — and he personally — were blameless. Similarly,
when a manager has to announce a new policy that employees will dislike, she might be tempted to
distance herself from the policy.
The professional approach is to tell the truth. If you mislead a reader in explaining why the shipment didn’t
arrive on time, the reader will likely double-check the facts, conclude that you are trying to avoid
responsibility, and end your business relationship. If you try to convince readers that you had nothing to do
with a new, unpopular policy, some of them will know you are being misleading, and you will lose your
most important credential: your credibility.
Writing Letters
Letters are still a basic means of communication between organizations, with
millions written each day. To write effective letters, you need to understand the
elements of a letter, its format, and the types of letters commonly sent in the
business world.
Most letters include a heading, inside address, salutation, body, complimentary
close, and signature. Some letters also include one or more of the following:
attention line, subject line, enclosure line, and copy line. Figure 14.2 (on page 368)
shows the elements of a letter.
FIGURE 14.2 Elements of a Letter
Letters follow one of two typical formats: modified block or full block. Figure
14.3 illustrates these two formats. When sending a letter as an email attachment,
you can save it as a PDF file to preserve the formatting for the recipient.
FIGURE 14.3 Typical Letter Formats
The dimensions and spacing shown for the modified block format also apply to the full
block format.
Organizations send out many different kinds of letters. This section focuses on four
types of letters written frequently in the workplace: inquiry, response to an inquiry,
claim, and adjustment.
Two other types of letters are discussed in this book: the transmittal letter in Ch. 18, p.
481, and the job-application letter in Ch. 15, p. 414.
Inquiry Letter Figure 14.4 shows an inquiry letter, in which you ask questions.
FIGURE 14.4 Inquiry Letter
Response to an Inquiry Figure 14.5 (on page 372) shows a response to the inquiry
letter in Figure 14.4.
FIGURE 14.5 Response to an Inquiry
Claim Letter Figure 14.6 (on page 373) is an example of a claim letter that the
writer scanned and attached to an email to the reader. The writer’s decision to
present his message in a letter rather than an email suggests that he wishes to
convey the more formal tone associated with letters — and yet he wants the letter to
arrive quickly.
FIGURE 14.6 Claim Letter
Adjustment Letter Figures 14.7 and 14.8 show “good news” and “bad news”
adjustment letters. The first is a reply to the claim letter shown in Figure 14.6 on
page 373.
FIGURE 14.7 “Good News” Adjustment Letter
FIGURE 14.8 “Bad News” Adjustment Letter
Writing Memos
Like letters, memos have a characteristic format, which consists of the elements shown in Figure 14.9.
FIGURE 14.9 Identifying Information in a Memo
Some organizations prefer the full names of the writer and reader; others want only the first initials and last names. Some
prefer job titles; others do not. If your organization does not object, include your job title and your reader’s. The memo will
then be informative for anyone who refers to it after either of you has moved on to a new position, as well as for others in
the organization who do not know you.
As with letters, you can attach memos to emails and deliver them electronically. To preserve the memo
format for the email recipient, save the memo as a PDF before sending.
If you prefer to distribute hard copies, print the second and all subsequent pages of a memo on plain paper
rather than on letterhead. Include three items in the upper right-hand or left-hand corner of each subsequent
page: the name of the recipient, the date of the memo, and the page number. See the header in Figure 14.2 on
page 369.
Figure 14.10, a sample memo, is a trip report, a record of a business trip written after the employee
returned to the office. Readers are less interested in an hour-by-hour narrative of what happened than in a
carefully structured discussion of what was important. Although writer and reader appear to be relatively
equal in rank, the writer goes to the trouble of organizing the memo to make it easy to read and refer to later.
FIGURE 14.10 Sample Memo
GUIDELINES: Organizing a Memo
When you write a memo, organize it so that it is easy to follow. Consider these five organizational elements.
A specific subject line. “Breast Cancer Walk” is too general. “Breast Cancer Walk Rescheduled to May 14” is
A clear statement of purpose. As discussed in Chapter 5 (p. 109), the purpose statement is built around a verb
that clearly states what you want the readers to know, believe, or do.
A brief summary. Even if a memo fits on one page, consider including a summary. For readers who want to read
the whole memo, the summary is an advance organizer; for readers in a hurry, reading the summary substitutes
for reading the whole memo.
Informative headings. Headings make the memo easier to read by enabling readers to skip sections they don’t
need and by helping them understand what each section is about. In addition, headings make the memo easier
to write because they prompt the writer to provide the kind of information readers need.
A prominent recommendation. Many memos end with one or more recommendations. Sometimes these
recommendations take the form of action steps: bulleted or numbered lists of what the writer will do or what the
writer would like others to do. Here is an example:
Action Items:
I would appreciate it if you would work on the following tasks and have your results ready for the meeting on
Monday, June 9.
Henderson: recalculate the flow rate.
Smith: set up meeting with the regional EPA representative for some time during the week of May 13.
Falvey: ask Armitra in Houston for his advice.
Writing Emails
Before you write an email in the workplace, find out your organization’s email policies. Most companies
have written policies that discuss circumstances under which you may and may not use email, principles you
should use in writing emails, and the monitoring of employee email.
GUIDELINES: Following Netiquette
When you write email in the workplace, adhere to the following netiquette guidelines. Netiquette refers to etiquette
on a network.
Stick to business. Don’t send jokes or other nonbusiness messages.
Use the appropriate level of formality. As discussed on page 364, avoid informal writing.
Write correctly. As discussed on page 365, remember to revise, edit, and proofread your emails before sending
Don’t flame. To flame is to scorch a reader with scathing criticism, usually in response to something that person
wrote in a previous message. When you are angry, keep your hands away from the keyboard.
Make your message easy on the eyes. Use uppercase and lowercase letters, and skip lines between
paragraphs. Use uppercase letters or boldface (sparingly) for emphasis.
Don’t forward a message to an online discussion forum without the writer’s permission. Doing so is
unethical and illegal; the email is the intellectual property of the writer or (if it was written as part of the writer’s
work responsibilities) the writer’s company.
Don’t send a message unless you have something to say. If you can add something new, do so, but don’t
send a message just to be part of the conversation.
Figure 14.11a shows an email that violates netiquette guidelines. The writer is a technical professional
working for a microchip manufacturer. Figure 14.11b shows a revised version of this email message.
FIGURE 14.11 Netiquette
Following Netiquette in an Email Message
This message was written in response to a question emailed to several colleagues by a technical
communicator seeking advice on how to write meeting minutes effectively. A response to an email message
should adhere to the principles of effective emails and proper netiquette. The questions below ask you to
think about these principles (explained on pp. 378–81).
1. How effectively has the writer stated her purpose?
2. How effectively has the writer projected a “you attitude” (explained on p. 365)?
3. How effectively has the writer made her message easy to read?

Writing Microblogs
As discussed earlier in this chapter, microblog posts are different from letters, memos, and email in that they
are often extremely brief and quite informal in tone. However, the fact that microblog posts are fast and
informal does not mean that anything goes. When you write microblog posts, you are creating
communication that will be archived and that will reflect on you and your organization. In addition, anything
you write is subject to the same laws and regulations that pertain to all other kinds of documents. Many of
the guidelines for following netiquette (see p. 380) apply to microblog posts as well as email. Take care,
especially, not to flame. Become familiar with your microblog’s privacy settings, and be aware of which
groups of readers may view and share your posts.
The best way to understand your responsibilities when you write a microblog post at work is to study your
organization’s guidelines. Sometimes, these guidelines are part of the organization’s guidelines for all
business practices or all digital communication. Sometimes, they are treated separately. Figure 14.12 shows
one organization’s microblogging guidelines.
FIGURE 14.12 Guidelines for Microblogging
GUIDELINES: Representing Your Organization on a Microblog
If you use a microblog at work to communicate with people outside your own organization, such as vendors and
customers, you want to use it in such a way that people are encouraged to like, respect, and trust you. These ten
suggestions can help.
Decide on your audience and your purpose. Are you connecting with clients, providing customer service,
helping people understand your company’s goals and vision? You might want to have different accounts if you
have several different audiences and purposes.
Learn the technology. Know how to use hashtags, how to mention other users in your tweets, how to reply
publicly and privately, how to integrate images and videos, and how to cross-post to your other social media
accounts should you need to.
Learn the culture of the community. Listen and learn before you post. Most communities have a distinct culture,
which influences how and when people post, link, and reply. For instance, in some communities, people stick
close to the technical topic; in others, they roam more freely and include personal comments.
Share, don’t sell. Post about incidents and developments that reinforce your organization’s core principles, such
as environmental awareness or making technology available around the world. Talk about leadership, teamwork,
and cooperation. Don’t try to sell products.
Help educate readers and solve their problems. Regardless of whether you’re responding to individual
questions and complaints or helping people understand your company’s culture or goals, focus on helping people
learn and solve problems.
Sound like a person. Use an informal tone. Readers are especially pleased when high-ranking employees show
their human side, such as when the Zappos CEO posted, “Dropped my laptop on floor this morning. I usually
drop my phone, so good to know I’m moving on to bigger and better things” (Hall, 2009).
Apologize when you make a mistake. At the start of a basketball game against their rivals the Dallas Mavericks,
the Houston Rockets sent out a tweet with a gun emoji pointed at a horse. Within two hours, after receiving
heavy criticism, the Rockets apologized and removed the tweet (Meyer, 2016).
Link generously. When you want to talk about something you’ve learned online, don’t paraphrase. Rather, link
back to the original source. Use a URL shortener such as Bitly or TinyURL so that the link won’t take up too
many of your 140 characters.
Get your facts right. Like anything online, your post is permanent. Double-check your facts before you post.
Otherwise, you could embarrass yourself and erode people’s trust in your professionalism.
Edit and proofread before you post. You should be informal, but you shouldn’t be sloppy. It sends the wrong
Writing Correspondence to Multicultural Readers
For more about cultural variables, see Ch. 5, p. 97.
The four types of business correspondence discussed in this chapter are used in countries around the world.
The ways they are used, however, can differ significantly from the ways they are used in the United States.
These differences fall into three categories:
Cultural practices. As discussed in Chapter 5, cultures differ in a number of ways, such as whether they
focus on individuals or groups, the distance between power ranks, and attitudes toward uncertainty.
Typically, a culture’s attitudes are reflected in its business communication. For example, in Japan, which
has a high power distance — that is, people in top positions are treated with great respect by their
subordinates — a reader might be addressed as “Most Esteemed Mr. Director.” Some cultural practices,
however, are not intuitively obvious even if you understand the culture. For example, in Japanese
business culture, it is considered rude to reply to an email by using the reply function in the email
software; it is polite to begin a new email (Sasaki, 2010).
Language use and tone. In the United States, writers tend to use contractions, the first names of their
readers, and other instances of informal language. In many other countries, this informality is potentially
offensive. Also potentially offensive is U.S. directness. A writer from the United States might write, for
example, that “14 percent of the products we received from you failed to meet the specifications.” A
Korean would more likely write, “We were pleased to note that 86 percent of the products we received
met the specifications.” The writer either would not refer to the other 14 percent (assuming that the
reader would get the point and replace the defective products quickly) or would write, “We would
appreciate replacement of the remaining products.” Many other aspects of business correspondence differ
from culture to culture, such as preferred length, specificity, and the use of seasonal references in the
Application choice and use. In cultures in which documents tend to be formal, letters might be preferred
to memos, or face-to-face meetings to phone calls or email. In Asia, for instance, a person is more likely
to walk down the hall to deliver a brief message in person because doing so shows more respect. In
addition, the formal characteristics of letters, memos, and emails are different in different cultures. The
French, for instance, use indented paragraphs in their letters, whereas in the United States, paragraphs are
typically left-justified. The ordering of the information in the inside address and complimentary close of
letters varies widely. In many countries, emails are structured like memos, with the “to,” “from,”
“subject,” and “date” information added at the top, even though this information is already present in the
routing information.
Try to study business correspondence written by people from the culture you will be addressing. When
possible, have important documents reviewed by a person from that culture before you send them.
Letter Format
Is the first page printed on letterhead stationery? (p. 368)
Is the date included? (p. 368)
Is the inside address complete and correct? (p. 368)
Is the appropriate courtesy title used? (p. 368)
If appropriate, is an attention line included? (p. 368)
If appropriate, is a subject line included? (p. 368)
Is the salutation appropriate? (p. 368)
Is the complimentary close typed with only the first word capitalized? (p. 369)
Is the signature legible, and is the writer’s name typed beneath the signature? (p. 369)
If appropriate, is an enclosure line included? (p. 369)
If appropriate, is a copy and/or courtesy-copy line included? (p. 369)
Is the letter typed in one of the standard formats? (p. 370)
If the letter is to be sent by email, did you consider saving it as a PDF? (p. 370)
Types of Letters
Does the inquiry letter
explain why you chose the reader to receive the inquiry? (p. 371)
explain why you are requesting the information and how you will use it? (p. 371)
specify the date when you need the information? (p. 371)
list the questions clearly? (p. 371)
offer, if appropriate, the product of your research? (p. 371)
Does the response to an inquiry letter
answer the reader’s questions? (p. 372)
explain why, if any of the reader’s questions cannot be answered? (p. 372)
Does the claim letter
identify specifically the unsatisfactory product or service? (p. 373)
explain the problem(s) clearly? (p. 373)
propose an adjustment? (p. 373)
conclude courteously? (p. 373)
Does the “good news” adjustment letter
express your regret? (p. 374)
explain the adjustment you will make? (p. 374)
conclude on a positive note? (p. 374)
Does the “bad news” adjustment letter
meet the reader on neutral ground, expressing regret but not apologizing? (p. 375)
explain why the company is not at fault? (p. 375)
clearly imply that the reader’s request is denied? (p. 375)
attempt to create goodwill? (p. 375)
Does the identifying information adhere to your organization’s standards? (p. 376)
If the memo is to be sent by email, did you consider saving it as a PDF? (p. 376)
Did you include a specific subject line? (p. 377)
Did you clearly state your purpose at the start of the memo? (p. 377)
If appropriate, did you summarize your message? (p. 377)
Did you provide appropriate background for the discussion? (p. 377)
Did you organize the discussion clearly? (p. 378)
Did you include informative headings to help your readers? (p. 378)
Did you highlight items requiring action? (p. 378)
Did you refrain from sending jokes or other nonbusiness messages? (p. 380)
If most of your communication is included in an attachment, did you keep your email very brief? (p. 380)
Did you use the appropriate level of formality? (p. 380)
Did you write correctly? (p. 380)
Did you avoid flaming? (p. 380)
Did you write a specific, accurate subject line? (p. 381)
Did you use uppercase and lowercase letters? (p. 381)
Did you skip lines between paragraphs? (p. 380)
Did you check with the writer before forwarding his or her message? (p. 380)
Did you study your organization’s policy on which microblog sites you may use and how you should use
them? (p. 382)
Did you exercise care in representing your organization on a microblog? (p. 384)
Multicultural Readers
Did you consider varying cultural practices? (p. 385)
Were you careful with language use and tone? (p. 385)
Did you take into account your readers’ preferences in application choice and use? (p. 385)
1. You are the head of research for a biological research organization. Six months ago, you purchased a
$2,000 commercial refrigerator for storing research samples. Recently, you suffered a loss of more than
$600 in samples when the thermostat failed and the temperature in the refrigerator rose to more than 48
degrees over the weekend. Inventing any reasonable details, write a claim letter to the manufacturer of
the refrigerator.
2. As the recipient of the claim letter described in Exercise 1, write an adjustment letter granting the
customer’s request.
3. As the manager of a retail electronics store, you guarantee that the store will not be undersold. If a
customer finds another retailer selling the same equipment at a lower price within one month of his or her
purchase, you will refund the difference. A customer has written to you and enclosed an ad from another
store showing that it is selling a router for $26.50 less than he paid at your store. The advertised price at
the other store was a one-week sale that began five weeks after the date of his purchase. He wants a
$26.50 refund. Inventing any reasonable details, write an adjustment letter denying his request. You are
willing, however, to offer him an 8-GB USB drive worth $9.95 if he would like to come pick it up.
4. TEAM EXERCISE Form small groups for this exercise on claim and adjustment letters. Have each
member of your group study the following social-media post and the response, which function as a claim
and an adjustment. Then meet and discuss your reactions to the two posts. How effectively does the
writer of the claim present her case? How effective is the response from the company? Does its writer
succeed in showing that the company’s procedures for ensuring safety are effective? Does its writer
succeed in projecting a professional tone? In both posts, how might the context of social media be
affecting the tone? Write an email to your instructor discussing the two posts, and attach to your email a
revised version of the company’s response.
Melissa Jackson
Star-Tel, your new Corona ME smartphone is the worst I’ve ever purchased! Two days into using it, I saw the back of the
phone starting to smoke and the battery caught fire. The guy at the store said the battery must have been defective and
replaced the phone. But three days later the same thing happened and sparks started coming out of it! Clearly it is not
just the battery but something to do with the phone. It is too dangerous to keep using it, but I don’t want to keep returning
this phone and getting yet another defective product! I have lost hours of work this week because of this. I think you owe
me — and everyone who’s bought your defective phone — a refund!
Star-Tel Communications
Melissa, we’re sorry to hear you weren’t happy with your Corona ME. Problems like this are usually due to a defect in the
battery or user error, such as exposing the phone to extreme heat. All of our products go through rigorous testing and
safety checks before they’re shipped, so we really don’t see how this could be a problem with the Corona ME model. If
you purchased the phone from one of our authorized dealers, they should provide you with a replacement at no charge
or offer you store credit.
The Customer Service Team
5. Louise and Paul work for the same manufacturing company. Louise, a senior engineer, is chairing a
committee to investigate ways to improve the hiring process at the company. Paul, a technical editor, also
serves on the committee. The excerpts quoted in Louise’s email are from Paul’s email to all members of
the committee in response to Louise’s request that members describe their approach to evaluating jobapplication materials. How would you revise Louise’s email to make it more effective?
To: Paul
From: Louise
Sometimes I just have to wonder what you’re thinking, Paul.
>Of course, it’s not possible to expect perfect resumes. But I
>have to screen them, and last year I had to read over 200. I’m
>not looking for perfection, but as soon as I spot an error I
>make a mental note of it and, when I hit a second and
>then a third error I can’t really concentrate on the writer’s
Listen, Paul, you might be a sharp editor, but the rest of us
have a different responsibility: to make the products and
move them out as soon as possible. We don’t have the
luxury of studying documents to see if we can find errors.
I suggest you concentrate on what you were hired to do,
without imposing your “standards” on the rest of us.
>From my point of view, an error can include a
>misused tradmark.
Misusing a “tradmark,” Paul? Is that Error Number 1?
6. Because students use email to communicate with other group members when they write collaboratively,
your college or university would like to create a one-page handout on how to use email responsibly.
Using a search engine, find three or four netiquette guides on the Internet that focus on email. Study
these guides and write a one-page student guide to using email to communicate with other students.
Somewhere in the guide, be sure to list the sites you studied, so that students can visit them for further
information about netiquette.
CASE 14: Setting Up and Maintaining a Professional Microblog
As the editor-in-chief of your college newspaper, you have recently been granted permission to create a Twitter
account. The newspaper’s faculty advisor has requested that, before you set up the account, you develop a
statement of audience and purpose based on your school’s own social-media policy statement and statements
from other schools, newspapers, and organizations. To begin putting together a bibliography to guide your
research and craft your statement, go to LaunchPad.

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Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

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