Urinal Water Output and Vasopressin

On average, every person, usually an adult, takes about 2500ml of water every day. However, most of the water comes via the digestive system, and metabolic processes make some of the water during the last step of respiration aerobically. Besides, every day, the amount of water excreted out of the body through different methods is 2500 ml. The kidney does most of the water output. The kidney can maintain the body’s fluid balance by various organisms that take out the water from the filtrate and urine. The kidney is also responsible for controlling the amount of water in the body; the kidney can stop the water loss when the body is dehydrated and excrete the concentrated urine out of the body. Water loss is also made through skin in the form of sweat lungs from the air expelled. This is an insensible water loss because the organism is not aware of it.

Homeostasis refers to the maintenance of the fluid concentration in the body. Homeostasis principally works towards balancing water input and output. The digestive system mostly generates an amount of water in the body through liquids and food. Still, approximately 10% of water is available for the body which is generated at the end of the aerobic respiration during the metabolic process. The production of the urine through the kidneys is principally responsible for the amount of water leaving the body enormously. The kidneys are also responsible for adjusting the concentration of the urine so that it can show the amount of water the body needs, and it is also responsible for the conservation of water in the case of dehydration.

The water excretion or loss occurs principally by the renal system of the kidney from the body. The average person excretes one liter of urine every day. The urine excretion may vary according to the level of water consumed; there is a fixed value for urine action needed for the body to do its function properly. The kidney excretes out about 100 ton 1200 milliosmoles whole every day; this is necessary to maintain the homeostasis in the body by excreting out many salts and chemical waste that are soluble in water, which mostly includes creatinine, urea, and uric acid. The average volume of urine cannot be excreted out of the body; it means that the body does not correctly remove metabolic waste and can cause disability in organ function. The minimum volume of the urine, which is very important to be excreted for normal function, is 0.47 liters every day. The kidney can also cause the intake of more fluids. The condition in which a large amount of urine is excreted out from the body after having a more fluid quantity is known as diuresis.

Vasopressin is the hormone responsible for the process of reabsorption of the water from the kidney’s collecting duct and the tubule. The hypothalamus control vasopressin production and is then transported to the pituitary gland for storing and releasing. When the receptors in the hypothalamus known as osmoreceptors exposed to blood plasma concentration, which has been increased, it sends the signal for releasing vasopressin through the posterior pituitary gland to the blood. Vasopressin is responsible for producing principal effects, including the construction of the artery walls in the circulation, which results in blood flow to a higher level and, therefore, increases blood supply to the body’s center. Vasopressin is responsible for causing epithelial cells encircling the renal collecting tubules for the water tunnel protein’s motion known as aquaporins from the interior to the cell’s apical surface. These proteins are embedded at these proteins into the membrane of the cell. When the concentration of blood plasma decreases and vasopressin’s amount also decreases, aquaporins detached from the collecting tubule. Then the amount of water output from the blood and the urine decreases. A compound known as a diuretic is responsible for increasing the output of urine and therefore helps and decreasing the conservation of water by the body. These diuretics are responsible for treating hypertension, heart failure, and fluid retention, which is associated with the menstrual cycle. Alcohol can also behave as and diuretic by decreasing the vasopressin release. In the case of high blood pressure, caffeine consumption in high concentration can work as a diuretic.


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