The movement of water in the soil is achieved by bulk flow and it becomes more complex when it comes in contact with the surface of the root. Negative water potential drives the water and solute movement continuously once it enters inside the root. The water movement in the root is carried out from epidermis to endodermis through three distinct pathways such as (i) apoplast pathway, (ii) transmembrane pathway, and (iii) symplast pathway.
Apoplast pathway: In this pathway, water movement occurs through the cell wall pores exclusively without passing through the plasma membranes. In plant tissues, the apoplast pathway is the continuous system of cell walls and intercellular air spaces.
Transmembrane pathway: Through this pathway, movement of water occurs sequentially through water channels by entering into one side of the cell and exit on the other side of the cell until it reaches the xylem. This process is carried out in a series and the water is transported at least two membranes for each cell.
Symplast pathway: In this pathway, plasmodesmataare involved in the movement of water and solute from the cytoplasm of one cell to the next cell. It connects the entire cell cytoplasm network to facilitate the water movement until reaching the xylem.
Transport of solute:
Xylem is a complex tissue that carries water and solutes from roots to the stem and leaves. It has xylem parenchyma, xylem fibers, tracheids, and vessels.
Most solutes are inorganic ions (calcium, potassium, magnesium, and nitrate) in xylem sap and few organic solutes are also present.
Ions are loaded into xylem vessels in root through xylem parenchyma cells and modify the levels of ion along the xylem pathway.
The close association of xylem vessels and living ray cells facilitate the solute transfer rapidly into and out of the xylem in secondary tissues.
Xylem loading takes place when the ions exit from the symplast and enter the xylem through the conducting cells.
The ions that are taken up at the cortex or epidermis of the root are loaded into tracheids or vessel elements of the stele by simple passive diffusion and must be translocated to shoot. By this process, the ions or solutes move from the surface of the root to the xylem.
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